Biology - 2

  • Created by: midget17
  • Created on: 01-04-18 20:34
Chromosomes
Carry genes with instructions for making new cells and tissue needed for organs
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Genes
Small packet of information that controls a characteristic of the body, section of DNA
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Stage 1 of cell cycle
Cell grows bigger, replicates DNA to form 2 copies of each chromosome, increase number of subcellular structures ready for division
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Stage 2 of cell cycle
One set of chromosomes is pulled to each side of the cell and the cell divides (mitosis)
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Stage 3 of cell cycle
Cytoplasm and membrane divide to form two identical daughter cells
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How the cell cycle is used in adults
Regular replacement of cells e.g. - hair follicles, skin, blood, digestive lining - important for growth and repair of multicellular organs
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Differentiation
The process by which a cell become specialised to perform a special function,
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Stem cells
Capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods, they are unspecialised and give rise to specialised cells, two types - embryonic and adult
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Sources of adult stem cells
Umbilical chord, teeth, blood, skin, menstrual blood, placental tissues
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Benefits of stem cells
Replacing damaged or diseased body parts, therapeutic medicine, limbs / organs could be grown in a lab from stem cells, more understanding of birth defects / infertility
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Disadvantages of using embryonic stem cells
Ethical - aborted embryo used, some believe it goes against its human rights, slow and expensive, potential cancer risks,
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Stem cells in plants
Stem cells from meristem cells can be used to make clones of parent plant very quickly and economically - able to produce large numbers of rare plants / save them from extinction, large populations of identical plants can be used for research
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Treatments for diseases from stem cells
Spinal cord injuries, blindness, heart after attack, diabetes, damaged bone and cartilage
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Ways to overcome ethical issues of using embryonic stem cells
Using embryonic stem cells found in the umbilical cord blood of newborn babies / amniotic fluid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Genes

Back

Small packet of information that controls a characteristic of the body, section of DNA

Card 3

Front

Stage 1 of cell cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stage 2 of cell cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stage 3 of cell cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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