Biology 2 for the whole of GCSE B2

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Why do we have a nucleus?
It controls the activities inside of a cell.
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What does the cell membrane do?
Controls what goes in and out of cells.
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What do the mitrochondria do?
Provides energy for the cells.
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What do ribosomes do?
Proteinsynthesis.
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Give three things a plant cell has that animal cells don't have?
Chloroplasts, cell wall and vacuals.
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Where is the DNA in a bacterial cell?
Cytoplasm.
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Give two examples of specialised cells?
Sperm or egg cell.
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WHat is diffusion>
Movement of particles for high to low concerntration.
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WHat is a tissue?
A series of cells with a similar function.
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What is an organ?
A group of tissues.
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What is an organ system?
Groups of organs put together.
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Give three organs that are found in plants?
Roots, stems and leaves.
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Three organ systems that can be found in humans?
Respiratory, CNS and digestion.
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What is the equation for photosynethesis?
Carbon dioxide+water ----- glucose + oxygen
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Give three factors that affect phtosynthesis?
Light, temp and co2
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Why do plants need to do photosynthesis?
To make starch which provides energy.
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What do we call a long chain of amino acids?
Protein.
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What is a catalyst?
Something that speeds up a reaction.
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WHat is a biological catalyst?
An enzyme.
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WHat does amylase do?
Turns starch into sugar.
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Where is amylase produced?
Silvary gland, pancreas and the small intestine.
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WHat does protease do?
Breaks down proteins into amino acids.
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Where is protease produced?
Stomach, pancreas and small intestine.
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What does lipase do?
Changes fats into fatty acids.
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Where is lipase produced?
Pancreas and small intestine?
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What acid is in the stomach?
Hydrochloric.
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Where is bile produced?`
In the liver.
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Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder.
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What does bile do?
Neutralises stomach acids.
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What can microorganisms be used for in the home?
Detergents.
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What can microorganisms be used for in the industry?
Converting or breaking down products.
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What is the equation for respiration?
glucose+oxygen ---- carbon dioxide + water.
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Where does aerobic respiration take place?
Mitochondria.
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What changes take place during excercise?
Heart rate increases and breathing increases.
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --- lactic acid.
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Where does anaerobic respiration take place?
not enough oxygen.
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What is the oxygen debt?
Incomplete breakdown of oxygen.
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Who proposed the idea of inherited factors?
Mendel.
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What does homozygous mean?
2 identical alleles
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What does heterozygous mean?
2 different alleles.
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What is a phenotype?
What something looks like.
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What is a genotype?
The genes you have.
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How do skin cells divide?
Mitosis.
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How many cells are formed during mitosis?
2
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What are chromosomes?
Long strands of DNA
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How do cells in the reproductive organ divide?
Meiosis
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What is a gamete?
Sperm or egg.
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How many chromosomes in a skin cell?
46
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How many chromosomes are in a gamete?
23
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What sex chromosomes do women have?
XX
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What sex chromosomes do men have?
XY
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What is a gene?
Parts of DNA that control characteristics.
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What is an allele?
Different versions of a gene.
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What is a dominant allele?
Controls characteristics with only one allele.
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What is a recessive allele?
You need two alleles present to control the characteristics.
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What is a polydactyly?
Extra fingers or toes.
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Is polydactyly controlled by a recessive or dominat allele?
Dominant.
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What is cystic fibrosis?
problems with Cell membrane
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Is cystic fibrosis controlled by a recessive or dominant allele?
Recessive.
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What evidence is there for early life?
Fossils.
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Why might an animals not leave a fossil?
They were soft bodied.
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Why might a species become extinct?
Change in environment, disease, predators.
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When might a new specides arise?
Isolation, genetic variation and natural selection.
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In mitosis how many times does a cell divide?
Once.
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In meiosis how many times does a cell divide?
Twice.
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Where does mitosis happen?
All over.
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Where does meiosis happen?
Testes and ovaries.
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What does a bacterial cell consist of?
Cytoplasm, membrane and a cell wall.
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What type of organism is yeast?
Single-celled organism. They have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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What does the muscular tissue do?
Contract to bring movement.
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What does the glandular tissue do?
Provides substances such s enzymes and hormones.
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What does the epithelial tissue do?
Covers parts of the body.
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What does the digestive system and include and what does it do?
Glands - pancreas and salivary glands provide digestive juices. The stomach and small intestine is where digestion occurs. The liver produce bile.
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What does phloem do?
Moves food around the body.
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What does xylem do?
Moves water around the body
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What carries out photosynthesis in a plant?
The mesophyll.
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How does photosynethesis happen?
Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll which is found in the chloroplasts.
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What are some ways glucose is used in plants?
To produce fat or oil, to produce cellulose which strengthens the cell wall and to produce proteins.
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Why do we do research on stem cells?
They can create treatments to help paralysis.
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A gene is a small section of...
DNA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the cell membrane do?

Back

Controls what goes in and out of cells.

Card 3

Front

What do the mitrochondria do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do ribosomes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give three things a plant cell has that animal cells don't have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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