Biology 2

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4 parts of an animal cell
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria
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7 parts of a plant cell
Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast
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Cell membrane
Controls what enters and leaves the cell.
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A large structure that contains DNA
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Jelly that reactions take place in
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Tiny structures where respiration takes place releasing energy.
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Where photosynthesis takes place for food.
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Cell wall
Cellulouse helps the cell keep shape
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central vacuole
contains cell sap which helps keep the plant cell rigid.
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Bacteria cells
they have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm but they don't have a nucleus.
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chromosomal DNA
Carries most of the bacterial genes.
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Tail like structure to help movement.
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bacterial cell wall
made of different substance to plant cell walls
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Plasmid DNA
Contain additional genes that are not found in chromosomes.
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Bacterial cells
chromosomal DNA flagellum cell wall plasmid DNA
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A gene is a part of DNA that codes for a specific protien
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Each gene has DNA its a long coiled molecule formed from two strands which are twisted in a double helix
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4 bases
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
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complementary pairs
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What holds the bases together?
weak hydrogen bonds
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DNA can be extracted from kiwi fruit step 1
mashed up and mixed with salty water and detergent, this breaks the cells and helps release the DNA from the nuclei.
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kiwi step 2
protease enzyme is added to the filtered mixture and helps break the proteins in cell membranes which releases more DNA.
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kiwi step 3
Ice cold ethanol id poured into the mixture, which makes the DNA separate from the liquid.
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DNA discovery
Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin studied the structure of DNA using X-rays, franklin studied X-ray photos of DNA to see how the atoms where grouped, James Watson and Crick interpreted data, franklins photographs were what finally determined DH
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Human genome
the order of bases on all the human chromosomes.
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genetic engineering
A gene from one organism is inserted into DNA of another organism . The inserted gene then makes its protein in the genetically modified organism.
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Advantages of GE
making human insulin using gm= quick+cheap so more can be treated.
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Card 2


7 parts of a plant cell


Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast

Card 3


Cell membrane


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