Biology

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Basic stain?
Methylene blue- stain negatively charged molecules + structures (nucleic acid+protein)- positive stain
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Acidic stains?
Eosin- stain positively charged molecules + structures (proteins)- positive or negative stain
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Negative stains?
India ink- stains background not specimen- dark background with light specimen
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Differential stains?
Gram stain , acid- fast stain, Flagella stain, Endospore stain + capsule stain
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Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)?
regulates the movement in and out of cell + Receptor molecules on the membrane allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
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Nucleus?
1). Nucleus = controls cell activity through transcription of DNA 2). Pores= allow substances (i.e RNA) to move between the nucleus + the cytoplasm 3). Nucleolus=make ribosomes
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Mitochondrion?
site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. ( oval or rod-shaped organelle that has a double membrane, inner membrane is folded to form structures called cristae)
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Chloroplast?
where photosynthesis takes place(small,flattened structure found in plant and algal cells, Surrounded by a double membrane,with membranes inside called thylakoid membranes- stack up to form grana.-Grana linked together by lamellae thin, flat pieces.
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Golgi Apparatus?
processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes. (series of fluid filled, flattened membrane sacs)
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Golgi Vesicle?
stores lipids and proteins made by the Golgi apparatus and then transports them out of the cell through the cell-surface membrane. (small fluid-filled sac -found in the cytoplasm, surrounded by membrane)
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Lysosome?
type of Golgi vesicle, contain the digestive enzymes lysozymes (small, round organelles surrounded by a membrane and with no clear internal structure)
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Ribosome?
Attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum, made up of proteins and RNA, not surrounded by a membrane, site where proteins are made. (float free in the cytoplasm or are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum)
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)?
folds and processes the proteins that have been produced at the ribosomes. (system of membranes that enclose a fluid-filled space.)
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)?
SER synthesises and processes lipids. (no ribosomes present)
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Cell Wall?
unction is to support cells and prevent them from changing shape. (rigid structure that surrounds cells in plants, algae and fungi, made by cellulose ( plant + algae cells) in fungi made of Chitin)
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Cell Vacuole?
They help to maintain pressure inside the cell and keep it rigid.The vacuole is also involved in isolating unwanted chemicals in the cell.(membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells.contains a weak solution of sugars and salts=sap
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tonoplast?
membrane surrounding plant cell vacuoles
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Cytoskeleton?
matrix of fibers and tubes provides structural support, provides a network over which materials can be transported within the cell and on which organelles can be anchored. (made of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules)
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Prokaryotes?
prokaryotic cells (single-cell organisms), Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells, i.e - bacteria
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eukaryotic organisms?
made of eukaryotic cells,
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centrioles?
Two short, identical microtubule structures
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Optical (light) microscopes?
Uses a light to form the image, max resolution = 0.2 micrometres (μm), cannot view organelles , Max magnification= x 1500.
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Electron microscopes?
Uses electrons to form an image, higher resolution than optical microscopes- gives detai-l view all organelles, Max resolution 0.0002 (μm) (1000 times higher than optical), Max magnification=x 1,500,000.
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x2 basic types of electron microscopes?
transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
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Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)?
Uses electromagnets to focus a beam of electrons(transmitted through a specimen), densest parts of the specimen absorb more electrons= darker, produce a high resolution- see internal structure of organelles, only be used on thin specimens.
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Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)?
Scans a beam of electrons over the specimen that knocks off electrons that are gathered in a cathode ray tube to form an image, 3D, thick specimens, lower resolution image than TEMs.
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Magnification?
how much bigger the image appears than the specimen sample is.
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Resolution?
how detailed the image is.
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Card 2

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Acidic stains?

Back

Eosin- stain positively charged molecules + structures (proteins)- positive or negative stain

Card 3

Front

Negative stains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Differential stains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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