Biology - KEY CONCEPTS

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  • Created by: Eshyyy1
  • Created on: 15-05-18 20:06
WHAT CAN ORGANISMS BE?
PROKARYOTES OR EUKARYOTES
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ARE PROKARYOTIC CELLS COMPLEX OR SIMPLE?
SIMPLE
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IS A PROKARYOTIC CELL A SINGLE-CELLED ORGANISM?
YES
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WHAT ARE THE SUB-CELLULAR STRUCTURES IN AN ANIMAL CELL?
NUCLEUS - MITOCHONDRIA - CYTOPLASM - CELL MEMBRANE - RIBOSOMES
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE NUCLEUS?
IT CONTAINS GENETIC MATERIAL THAT CONTROLS THE ACTIVITIES OF THE CELL - GENETIC MATERIAL IS ARRANGED INTO CHROMOSOMES
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF MITOCHONDRIA?
WHERE MOST OF THE REACTIONS FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE - RESPIRATION TRANSFERS ENERGY THAT THE CELL NEEDS TO WORK
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CYTOPLASM?
GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE WHERE MOST OF THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS HAPPEN - IT CONTAINS ENZYMES THAT CONTROL THESE CHEMICAL REACTIONS
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CELL MEMBRANE?
HOLDS THE CELL TOGETHER AND CONTROLS WHAT GOES IN AND OUT
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF RIBOSOMES?
THESE ARE INVOOLVED IN TRRANSLATION OF GENETIC MATERIAL IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS
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WHAT DO PLANT CELLS HAVE THAT ANIMAL CELLS DON'T?
CHLOROPLASTS - RIGID CELL WALL - LARGE VACUOLE
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CHLOROPLASTS?
THESE ARE WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS, WHICH MAKES FOOD FOR THE PLANT - THEY CONTAIN A GREEN SUBSTANCE CALLED CHLOROPHYLL
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE RIGID CELL WALL?
MADE OF CELLULOSE - IT SUPPORTS THE CELL AND STRENGTHENS IT
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE LARGE VACUOLE?
CONTAINS CELL SAP, A WEAK SOLUTION OF SUGAR AND SALTS, IT MAINTAINS THE INTERNAL PRESSURE TO SUPPORT THE CELL
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DO BACTERIAL CELLS HAVE A NUCLEUS?
NO
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ARE BACTERIAL CELLS SMALLER OR LARGER THAN PLANT OR ANIMAL CELLS?
SMALLER
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WHAT ARE THE SUB-CELLULAR STRUCTURES OF BACTERIAL CELLS?
CHROMOSOMAL DNA - FLAGELLUM - PLASMID DNA - CELL MEMBRANE - RIBOSOMES -
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL DNA?
CONTROLS THE CELL'S ACTIVITIES AND REPLICATION - IT FLOATS FREE IN THE CYTOPLASM
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAGELLUM?
A LONG, HAIR-LIKE STRUCTURE THAT ROTATES TO MAKE THE BACTERIUM MOVE - IT CAN BE USED TO MOVE THE BACTERIUM AWAY FROM HARMFUL SUBSTANCES LIKE TOXINS AND TOWARDS BENEFICIAL THINGS LIKE NUTRIENTS OR OXYGEN
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTIOON OF THE PLASMID DNA?
SMALL LOOPS OF EXTRA DNA THAT AREN'T PART OF THE CHROMOSOME - PLASMIDS CONTAIN GENES FOR THINGS LIKE DRUG RESISTANCE, AND CAN BE PASSED BETWEEN BACTERIA
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WHAT DO MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS CONTAIN?
LOTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS
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WHAT IS THE NAME OF CELLS THAT ARE ADAPTED TO THEIR FUNCTION?
SPECIALISED CELLS
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WHAT ARE THE SPECIALISATIONS OF AN EGG AND SPERM CELL?
REPRODUCTION
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WHAT HAPPENS IN SEXUAL REPRODUCTION?
THE NUCLEUS OF AN EGG CELL FUSES WITH THE NUCLEUS OF A SPERM CELL TO CREATE A FERTILISED EGG, WHICH THEN DEVELOPS INTO AN EMBRYO
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HOW MANY CHROMOSOMES ARE IN BOTH THE NUCLEUS OF AN EGG AND SPERM CELL?
HALF THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES THAT ARE IN A NORMAL BODY CELL - HAPLOID
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WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CHROMOSOMES WHEN AN EGG AND SPERM CELL COMBINE?
THE RESULTING CELL WILL HAVE THE RIGHT NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES
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WHAT ARE THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF AN EGG CELL?
TO CARRY THE FEMALE DNA AND TO NOURISH THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO IN THE EARLY STAGES
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WHAT ARE THREE WAYS AN EGG CELL IS ADAPTED TO IT'S FUNCTION?
CONTAIN NUTRIENTS IN THE CYTOPLASM TO FEED THE EMBRYO - HAVE A HAPLOID NUCLEUS - STRAIGHT AFTER FERTILISATION, ITS MEMBRANE CHANGES STRUCTURE TO STOP ANY MORE SPERM GETTING IN, THIS MAKES SURE THE OFFSPRING END UP WITH THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF DNA
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF A SPERM CELL?
TO TRANSPORT THE MALE'S DNA TO THE FEMALE'S EGG
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WHAT ARE THE SPECIALISATIONS FOR SPERM CELLS?
LONG TAIL TO SWIM TO THE EGG - LOTS OF MITOCHONDRIA IN THE MIDDLE SECTION TO PROVIDE ENERGY (FROM RESPIRATION) NEEDED TO SWIM THIS DISTANCE - ACROSOME WHERE IT STORES ENZYMES TO DIGEST THE MEMBRANE OFF TH EGG CELL - HAPLOID NUCLEUS
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WHAT ARE CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS SPECIALISED FOR?
MOVING MATERIALS
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WHAT DO CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS LINE THE SURFACES OF?
ORGANS
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WHAT DO SOME OF THEM HAVE ON THE TOP SURFACE OF THE CELL?
CILIA (HAIR-LIKE STRUCTURES)
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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS?
TO MOVE SUBSTANCES - THESE HELP TO MOVE MUCUS (AND ALL OF THE PARTICLES FROM THE AIR THAT IT HAS TRAPPED) UP TO THE THROAT SO IT CAN BE SWALLOWED AND DOESN'T REACH THE LUNGS
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WHAT ARE CELLS STUDIED USING?
MICROSCOPES
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NAME TWO THINGS MICROSCOPES DO
MAGNIFY IMAGES - INCREASE THE RESOLUTION OF AN IMAGE
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WHAT IS RESOLUTION?
MEANS HOW WELL A MICROSCOPE DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN TWO POINTS THAT ARE CLOSE TOGETHER
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WHAT DOES A HIGHER RESOLUTION MEAN?
THE IMAGE CAN BE SEEN MORE CLEARLY AND IN MORE DETAIL
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WHEN WERE LIGHT MICROSCOPES INVENTED?
IN THE 1950s
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HOW DO LIGHT MICROSCOPES WORK?
THEY WORK BY PASSING LIGHT THROUGH THE SPECIMEN
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WHAT CAN WE SEE THROUGH LIGHT MICROSCOPES?
NUCLEI - CHLOROPLASTS
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WHAT CAN WE STUDY THROUGH LIGHT MICROSCOPES?
LIVING CELLS
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WHEN WERE ELECTRON MICROSCOPES INVENTED?
1930s
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C
HIGHER
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WHAT CAN WE SEE THROUGH ELECTRON MICROSCOPES?
SMALLER AND IN MORE DETAIL - INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF MITOCHONDRIA -INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF CHLOROPPLASTS
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CAN ELECTRON MICROSCOPES BE USED TO VIEW LIVING CELLS?
NO
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WHAT HAVE ELECTRON MICROSCOPES HELPED US TO DO?
UNDERSTAND HOW CELLS WORK - ROLE OF SUBCELLULAR STRUCTURES
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WHAT ARE THE 4 STEPS TO A SCIENTIFIC DRAWING OF A SPECIMEN?
1)DRAW OUTLINES OF THE MAIN FEATURES 2)MAKE SURE THE DRAWING TAKES UP AT LEAST HALF OF THE SPACE AND ALL PARTS ARE IN PROPORTION 3)LABEL ALL FEATURES 4)INCLUDE MAGNIFICATION AND SCALE
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SEE PRACTICAL ON MICROSCOPY
SEE PRACTICAL ON MICROSCOPY
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WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR TOTAL MAGNIFICATION?
TOTAL MAGNIFICATION = EYEPIECE LENS MAGNIFICATION X OBJECTIVE LENS MAGNIFICATION
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WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR MAGNIFICATION?
IMAGE SIZE ÷ REAL SIZE
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SEE PAGE ON STANDARD FORM
SEE PAGE ON STANDARD FORM
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WHAT IS A CATALYST?
A CATALYST IS A SUBSTANCE WHICH INCREASES THE SPEED OF A REACTION, WITHOUT BEING CHANGED OR USED UP IN THE REACTION
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WHAT TYPES OF ENZYMES ARE CATALYSTS?
BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS
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WHAT DO ENZYMES REDUCE?
THE NEED FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES
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WHY DO WE NEED ENZYMES?
TO SPEED UP THE USEFUL CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE BODY
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WHY DO ENZYMES HAVE SPECIAL SHAPES?
SO THEY CAN CATALYSE REACTIONS
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WHAT DO CHEMICAL REACTIONS USUALLY INVOLVE?
BEING SPLIT APART - BEING JOINED TOGETHER
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WHAT MOLECULE IS CHANGED IN THE REACTION?
THE SUBSTRATE
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WHAT DOES EVERY ENZYME HAVE?
AN ACTIVE SITE
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WHAT IS THE ACTIVE SITE?
THE PART WHERE THE ENZYME JOINS ON TO ITS SUBSTRATE TO CATALYSE THE REACTION
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HOW MANY SUBSTRATES DO ENZYMES USUALLY WORK WITH?
1
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WHAT ARE THE 3 CONDITIONS FOR ENZYMES?
pH, SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION, TEMPERATURE
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WHAT HAPPENS IF THE TEMPERATURE GETS TOO HOT FOR THE ENZYME?
WHAT HAPPENS IF THE TEMPERATURE GETS TOO HOT FOR THE ENZYME?
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WHAT HAPPENS IF THE pH IS TOO HIGH OR LOW FOR AN ENZYME?
THE pH INTERFERES WITH THE BONDS HOLDING THE ENZYME TOGETHER - CHANGES SHAPE OF ACTIVE SITE - DENATURED
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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION IS HIGH?
THE REACTION IS FASTER
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SEE PG 28 PRACTICAL
SEE PG28 PRACTICAL
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WHAT DO ENZYMES BREAK DOWN?
BIG MOLECULES
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GIVE 3 EXAMPLES OF BIG MOLECULES
PROTEINS - LIPIDS - CARBOHYDRATES
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WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR ORGANISMS TO BREAK THEM DOWN INTO THEIR SMALLER COMPONENTS?
SO THEY CAN BE USED FOR - GROWTH - LIFE PROCESSES
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WHAT DO DIGESTIVE ENZYMES DO?
BREAK BIG FOOD MOLECULES DOWN INTO SMALLER, SOLUBLE MOLECULES
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WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR BIG MOLECULES TO BE SMALLER AND MORE SOLUBLE?
PASS EASILY THROUGH THE WALLS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM
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WHAT DO ENZYMES IN PLANTS DO?
BREAK DOWN STARCH INTO SMALLER MOLECULES
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WHY DOES STARCH NEED TO BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER MOLECULES?
SO THEY CAN BE RESPIRED TO TRANSFER ENERGY TO BE USED BY THE CELLS
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WHAT DO CARBOHYDRASES CONVERT?
STARCH>AMYLASE>MALTOSE AND OTHER SUGARS
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WHAT DO PROTEASES CONVERT?
PROTEINS>PROTEASE>AMINO ACIDS
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WHAT DO LIPASES CONVERT?
LIPID>LIPASE>GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS
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HOW ARE CARBOHYDRASES SYNTHESISED?
JOINING SIMPLE SUGARS
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FOOD TESTS PRACTICAL PG 30&31
FOOD TESTS PRACTICAL PG 30&31
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HOW DO WE FIND OUT HOW MUCH ENERGY THERE IS IN FOOD?
CALORIMETRY
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WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR ENERGY IN FOOD (J)?
ENERGY IN FOOD(J) = MASS OF WATER(G) X TEMPERATURE CHANGE IN WATER X 4.2
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WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR ENERGY PER GRAM OF FOOD (J/G)
ENERGY IN FOOD(J) / MASS OF FOOD (G)
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WHAT IS DIFFUSION?
DIFFUSION IS THE NET MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
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WHERE DOES DIFFUSION HAPPEN?
LIQUIDS - GASES
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WHAT SIZE MOLECULES CAN DIFFUSE THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES?
SMALL
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GIVE 4 EXAMPLES OF SMALL MOLECULES
GLUCOSE - AMINO ACIDS -WATER - OXYGEN
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GIVE 2 EXAMPLES OF BIG MOLECULES
STARCH - PROTEIN
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WHAT IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT?
MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES ACROSS A MEMBRANE AGAINST A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT (I.E FROM AN AREA OF LOWER TO AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION) USING ENERGY TRANSFERRED DURING RESPIRATION
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HOW IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT DIFFERENT FROM DIFFUSION?
PARTICLES ARE MOVED UP A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT RATHER THAN DOWN AND REQUIRES ENERGY
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GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT IN THE GUT
SOMETIMES THERE'S A LOWER CONCENTRATION OF NUTRIENTS IN THE GUT THAN BLOOD SO ACTIVE TRANSPORT ALLOWS NUTRIENTS TO BE TAKEN INTO THE BLOOD EVEN THOUGH THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT IS THE WRONG WAY - STOPS US STARVING
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WHAT IS OSMOSIS?
WHAT IS OSMOSIS?
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WHAT IS A PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE?
A MEMBRANE WITH SMALL HOLES IN IT
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WHY IS A PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE NEEDED?
SO TINY MOLECULES CAN PASS THROUGH THEM AND BIGGER ONES CANT
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WHICH WAYS DO WATER MOLECULES PASS THROUGH THE PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE?
BOTH WAYS
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HOW DO WATER MOLECULES MOVE?
RANDOMLY
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OSMOSIS PRACTICAL PG 36&37
OSMOSIS PRACTICAL PG 36&37
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