Biology

  • Created by: Amy-C
  • Created on: 13-05-18 14:57
Name 5 subcellular structures that BOTH plant and animal cells have
Mitochoondria / Nucleus / Cytoplasm / Cell Membrane / Ribosomes
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What 3 things do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
Rigid cell wall / Chloroplasts / Permanent vacuole
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Where is the genetic material found in animal and bacterial cells?
Animal = Nucleus / Bacterial = Single circular strand of DNA that floats freely in the cytoplasm
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What type of organisms are bacteria - prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes
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Whic gives a higher resolution - a light microscope or an electron microscope?
An electron microscope
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How have electron microscopes increased our understanding of subcellular structures?
They let us see much smaller things in more detail
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Formula for magnification:
Magnification = Image size / Real size
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Why do cells differentiate?
Differentiation is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
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Give 3 ways that a sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell
It has a long tail and a streamlined head tohelp it swim to the egg / There are alot of mitochondria in the cell to provide the energy needed / It also carries enzymes in its head to digest through the egg cell membrane
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Nerve cell
These cells are long (to cover more distance) and have branched connections at their ends to connect to other nerve cells and form a network throughout the body
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Give 2 ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases
Stem cells transferred from the bone marrow of a healthy person can replace faulty blood cells in the patient who receives them / They can also be used to replace faulty cells in sick people - you could make insulin - producing cells for diabetes etc
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Why might some people be opposed to the use of human embryos in stem cell research?
The embryo will be harmed and could be killed
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What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are coiled up lengths of DNA molecules. They contain genetic information
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What is the cell cycle?
Body cells in multicellular organisms divide to produce new cells as part of a series of stages
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What is mitosis used for by multicellular organisms?
To grow or replace cells that have been damaged
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What is the name of the process by which bacteria divide?
Binary fission
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What is the maximum temperature at which microorganisms in a school lab should be grown?
25 degrees celsius - to stop harmful pathogens from growing
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There are ways in which you can make sure an experiment testing the effect of antibiotics on bacteria has not been contaminated. Give 3 of these ways:
Sterilise all equipment before using by passing it through a Bunsen flame / The lid should be lightly taped on / The petri dish should be stored upside down
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
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Name 3 substances that can diffuse through cell membranes and 2 that can't:
Can - Oxygen, Glucose, Amino acids and Water / Can't - Starch and Proteins
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration
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What type of molecules move by osmosis?
Tiny molecules - Water / Bigger molecules - Sucrose
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Give the 2 main differences between active transport and diffusion
Diffusion is from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Active transport is from lower to higher / Active transport is against a concentration gradient but diffusion is not
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How are alveoli adapted for gas exchange?
An enormous surface area / A moist lining for dissolving gases / Very thin walls / A good blood supply
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How are the villi in the small intestine adapted for absorbing digested food?
A single layer of surface cells / A very good blood supply to assist quick absorption / Increased surface area
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Explain how leaves are adapted to maximise the amount of carbon dioxide that gets to their cells
The underneath of the leaf is an exchange surface. Its covered in biddy little holes called stomata which the carbon dioxide diffuses in through. The walls of the cells inside the leaf form another exchange surface.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What 3 things do plant cells have that animal cells don't?

Back

Rigid cell wall / Chloroplasts / Permanent vacuole

Card 3

Front

Where is the genetic material found in animal and bacterial cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of organisms are bacteria - prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Whic gives a higher resolution - a light microscope or an electron microscope?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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