biology

Describe the process of gaseous exchange
Oxygen diffuses out of the alveolus (high concentration) into the blood (low concentration).carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood (high concentration) into the alveolus (low concentration) to be breathed out
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How do you work out the breathing rate?
breathes per minute=number of breaths/number of minutes
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What is the circulatory system made up of?
heart,blood vessels and blood
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What is the role of the right ventricle?
pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen.This blood then returns to the heart
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What is the role of the left ventricle?
pumps oxygenated blood around all the other organs of the body.The blood gives up its oxygen at the body cells and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped out to the lungs again
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What is the role of the heart?
The heart is a pumping organ that keeps the blood flowing around the body.The walls of the heart are mostly made of muscle tissue
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What is the role of the valve?
to make sure that blood flows in the right direction - they prevent it flowing backwards
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What are the four chambers of the heart?
right atrium,right ventricle,left atrium,left ventricle
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Describe the cycle of the heart
blood flows into the two atria from the vena cava and the pulmonary vein.The atria contract pushing the blood into the ventricles.The ventricles contract forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta and out of the heart.
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Describe the cycle of the heart 2
The blood then flows to the organs through arteries and returns through veins.The atria fill again and the whole cycle starts again
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What is a pacemaker?
Your resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells in the right atrium wall that act as a pacemaker
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What do the pacemaker cells produce?
These cells produce a small electrical impulse which spreads to the surrounding muscle cells causing them to contract
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What is an artificial pacemaker?
Often used to control heartbeat of the natural pacemaker cells dont work properly (irregular heartbeat)its a device planted under the skin with a wire to the heart.it produces an electric current to keep the heart beating regularly
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What are the 3 types of blood vessel?
arteries,capillaries and veins
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What are arteries and how are they adapted?
Arteries carry blood under pressure.Artery walls are strong and elastic.Walls are thick compared to the lumen.Thick layers of muscle to make them strong.Elastic fibres to alow them to stretch and spring back
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What are capillaries and how are they adapted?
Arteries branch into capillaries and are very small.They carry blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances with them.They have permeable walls so substances can diffuse in and out.Supply food and oxygen and take away waste
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What are capillaries and how are they adapted? 2
Walls are only 1 cell thick so this increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distancer over which it occurs
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What are the veins and how are they adapted?
veins take blood back to the heart.Bigger lumen to help blood flow despite low pressure.Valves to keep flowing in the right direction
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How do you calculate the rate of blood flow?
rate of blood flow=volume of blood/number of minutes
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What is the job of a red blood cell and how are they adapted?
carry oxygen from lungs to all cells in the body,biconcave shape this gives a large surface area for absorbing oxygen.dont have a nucleus meaning more space.red pigment for haemoglobin.in the lungs oxygen bings to make oxhaemoglobin.
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What are the jobs of white blood cells and how are they adapted?
White blood cells defend against infection.some can change shape to engulf micororganisms(phagocytosis)others produce antibodies to fight microorganisms and some produce antitoxins to neutralise any toxins produced.They have a nucleus
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What are the jobs of platelets and how are they adapted?
Platelets help blood clot.They are small fragments of cells that have no nucleus.Stop all blood pouring out.lack of platelets can cause excessive bleeding and brusing
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What is a plasma and how is it adapted?
The liquid that carries everything in the blood.(red and white blood cells and platelets,glucose,amino acids,CO2,urea,hormones,proteins,antiobodies and antitoxins
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do you work out the breathing rate?

Back

breathes per minute=number of breaths/number of minutes

Card 3

Front

What is the circulatory system made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the role of the right ventricle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the role of the left ventricle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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