Biology

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5 functions of the skeleton
Support, Protection, movement, haematopoiesis, mineral storage
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Whats the shape, function and location of long bones?
Longer rather than wide. They act as levers aiding with locomotion ans support. They are located in the limbs e.g. femur in a dog
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Whats the shape, function and location of short bones?
They are of equal dimentions. They absorb impactt and are found in the feet/paws e.g. carpal in a cats paw
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Whats the shape, function and location of flat bones?
strong flat plates of bone. Muscles attach to them and they also protect organs. They are found in the pelvis, cranium and scapula
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Whats the shape, function and location of sesamoid bones?
Short, irregular bones embedded into a tendon. They reduce friction and are found in the tendons of the knee, feet e.g patella of a dog
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Whats the shape, function and location of irregular bones
Odd-shaped. They aid in protection, support and can act as anchor points. They are found in the vertebra column
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3 major types of joints?
Fiborus, Cartilaginus, synovial Joints
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Where are Fiborus joints found? do they allow movement?
In the skull, they allow no movement
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Where are Cartilagiinous joints found? do they allow movement?
In the spine and ribs. They allow some movement
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Where are Synovial joints found? do they allow movement?
Found where 2 bones meet and they are freely movable
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Where are saddle joints found and the type of movement they allow
Thumb, rotation
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What type of movement do hinge joints allow?
Flexion/extension
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What type of movements do condyloid joints allow?
Flexion/extension and Adduction/Abduction
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What type of movement do Pivot joints allow?
Rotation
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What tpye of movement do Ball & soccet joints allow?
Flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, internal & external rotation
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What type of movement do Gliding joints allow?
Gliding
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What is the fibrous joint capsule?
An envelope around the synovial joint
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What is the hyaline cartilage?
acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction
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What is a ligament
Joins bone to bone and stabilizes the joint
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What is a tendon
Joins muscle to bone and enables movement
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what does the Synovial membrane produce?
Produces synovial fluid
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What does the synovial fluid do?
Lubricates the joint
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When is muscle tissue mainly formed?
Duing myogenesis. Myoblasts fuse into myotubes forming muscle tissue
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What are muscle cells mostly composed of?
Myofibirils
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What are segments of myofubrial known as?
Sarcomere
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What proteins are found in muscle fibers that produce muscular contraction?
Tropins
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What ions bind to tropin?
Calcium ions
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what are the 3 types of muscles?
Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth muscles
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7 uses of feathers
Flight, protection, stealth, display, warmth, walking and avoiding preditation
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What are clawas & hooves made of?
They are made of a section of the dermis
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What are hollow horns made of?
Keratin, surrounded by a mass of bone
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What are antlers composed of?
Bone
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What are feathers made from?
Beta Keration
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Contour - description & function
help with insulation. give birds their shape and colour
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Down - description & function
Help with insulation. soft and fluffy in appearance
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Semiplume - description & function
Help with insulation. found underneath contour feathers
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Flight - description & function
Give strength for flight. found in the wings and tail
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Bristle - description & function
Protect the eyes and help funnel food into the mouth. Found around these areas in insect-eating birds
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Filoplume - description & function
Send information to the brain about feather alignment. These are very small and attached to nerve endings.
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What does the pancreas do when the gluscose levels are heigh?
secretes insulin into the blood
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What does the Liver do when the gluscose levels are heigh?
converts glucose into glycogen
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What does the pancreas do when the gluscose levels are low?
Releases glvcagon from its alpha cells
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What does the liver do when the gluscose levels are low?
Glucagon causes glycogen to convert back to glucose
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Polarisation
Internal charge becomes negative
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Depolarisation
Internal charge becomes positive
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Visual
Photoreceptors in the retinal layer of the eye respond to light
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Auditory
Hair cells in inner ear vibrate, according to the pitch and volume of sounds. They send impulses via the auditory nerve to the brain for processing
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Somatosensory
They skin contains a variety of receptors which respond to temperature, touch and pressure. Whiskers also help contribute to somatosensation
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Gustatory
The tongue contains papillae, which contain taste buds.contain chemoreceptors respond to food&drink
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Olfactory
Chemoreceptors in the nasal cavity respond to odour molecules in the air.
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What do chemoreceptors detect?
Chemicals
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What do thermoreceptors detect?
Change in temperature
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What do mechanoreceptors detect?
Mechanical changes in the enviroment
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What do photoreceptors detect?
Light
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What type of vision do predators have?
Binocular Vision
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What type of vision do prey have?
Monocular vision
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where does Aerobic respiration occur?
Occurs in the mitochondria of cells
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where does anaerobic respiration occur?
Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells
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2 functions of the lymphatic system
Miantains fluid balance in the body, helps animals fight infections
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What does the excretory system consist of?
Kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra
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What does the excretory system remove?
Nitrogenous waste products e.g. ammonia that arise from the breakdown of protein
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino Acid
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Liver damage causes?
damage due to diseaee, medication or toxins. Infection of hepatitis C. excess fat build up in the liver
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Symptoms of liver damage?
Loss of appetite, eight loss, vomiting, and/or diarrhoea, lack of energy, increase of urination
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How to prevent liver damage
Healthy diet, exercise
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Where does the final reabsorption of inons and watter occur?
The distal convoluted tubule
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Definition of species
a group of biological similar individuals who can interbread to produce fetile offspring
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Definition of variation
The difference between organisms linked to differences//changes in DNA
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Definition of Natural selection
A process which organisms better adapted to their enviroment tend to survive and produce more offspring
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Definition of evolution
A change iin characteriistics over time
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Physiological
a body
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Whats the shape, function and location of long bones?

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Longer rather than wide. They act as levers aiding with locomotion ans support. They are located in the limbs e.g. femur in a dog

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Whats the shape, function and location of short bones?

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Card 4

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Whats the shape, function and location of flat bones?

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Whats the shape, function and location of sesamoid bones?

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