BIOLOGY

HideShow resource information
WHAT ARE THE 5 PARTS TO AN ANIMAL CELL?
NUCLEUS, CYTOPLASM, CELL MEMBRANE, RIBOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA
1 of 148
WHAT ARE THE 8 PARTS TO A PLANT CELL?
CYTOPLASM, CELL MEMBRANE, NUCLEUS, RIBOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, CELL WALL, PERMANENT VACUOLE, CHLOROPLASTS.
2 of 148
WHAT IS THE CELL WALL MADE OF?
CELLULOSE
3 of 148
DESCRIBE HOW A PROKARYOTIC CELL IS DIFFERENT TO A EUKARYOTIC CELL.
THEY ARE MUCH SMALLER. HAVE CELL MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM AND CELL WALL NOT MADE OF CELLULOSE. DNA IS ONE LOOP, CAN BE SMALLER DNA RINGS CALLED PLASMIDS.
4 of 148
WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR IMAGE SIZE?
IMAGE SIZE= MAGNIFICATION X ACTUAL SIZE
5 of 148
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CELL DIFFERENTIATION IN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS?
PLANTS CAN DIFFERENTIATE FOR THEIR ENTIRE LIVES
6 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS AS A CELL DIFFERENTIATES?
IT GETS DIFFERENT SUB-CELLULAR STRUCTURES THAT ENABLE SPECIALISATION
7 of 148
WHY IS CELL DIFFERENTIATION IMPORTANT?
SO THAT CELLS CAN HAVE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS AND ORGANISMS CAN BE MULTICELLULAR
8 of 148
DESCRIBE A NERVE CELL
HAS A MYELIN SHEATH FOR INSULATION AND STOPS IMPULSE LEAVING AXON,CARRIES ELECTRICAL IMPULSES VIA AXON, SYNAPSE PASSES IMPULS ON, CONTAINS MANY MITOCHONDRIA, DENDRITES MAKE CONNECTIONS TO OTHER CELLS.
9 of 148
DESCRIBE A MUSCLE CELL
SPECIAL PROTEINS THAT CONTRACT AND RELAX TO MOVE PARTS OF BODY, CONTAIN MANY MITOCHONDRIA FOR EASY ENERGY TRANSFER, STORES GLYCOGEN TO USE IN RESPIRATION.
10 of 148
DESCRIBE A SPERM CELL
MIDDLE SECTION FULL OF MITOCHONDRIA,ACROSOME STORES DIGESTIVE ENZYMES TO BREAK OUTER SHELL, TAIL FOR MOVEMENT,NUCLEUS CONTAINS DNA TO BE PASSED ON
11 of 148
DESCRIBE A ROOT HAIR CELL
LARE PERMANENT VACUOLE SPEEDS UP OSMOSIS, MITOCHONDRIA TO RELEASE ENERGY FOR ACTIVE TRANSPORT, LARGE SURFACE AREA, MORE WATER IN CELL
12 of 148
DESCRIBE A XYLEM CELL
DEAD HOLLOW TUBE OF XYLEM ALLOWS WATER TO MOVE THROUGH, LIGNIN SPIRALS FOR STRENGTH, WITHSTAND PRESSURE OF WATER; TRANSPORTS WATER IN ONE DIRECTION
13 of 148
DESCRIBE A PHLOEM CELL
SIEVE PLATES ALLOW DISSOLVED FOOD IN WATER TO MOVE FREELY IN BOTH DIRECTIONS; HOLLOW PHLOEM VESSEL TRANSPORTS SUGARS; COMPANION CELLS KEEP THEM ALIVE, RELEASE NECESSARY ENERGY; MANY MITOCHONDRIA
14 of 148
HOW DO SUBSTANCES MOVE IN AND OUT OF CELLS?
VIA DIFFUSION ( ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE)
15 of 148
DEFINE DIFFUSION
SPREADING OF PARTICLES OF ANY SUBSTANCE RESULTING IN NET MOVEMENT FROM HIGH CONC. TO LOW CONC.
16 of 148
3 EXAMPLES OF SUBSTANCES WHICH DIFFUSE?
CO2, OXYGEN AND UREA
17 of 148
3 FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE RATE OF DIFFUSION ARE:
TEMP. SURFACE AREA OF MEMBRANE AND CONC. GRADIENT
18 of 148
HOW DOES TEMP AFFECT DIFFUSION?
MORE HEAT= MORE KE SO PARTICLES MOVE QUICKER OVER MEMBRANE.
19 of 148
HOW DOES SA AFFECT DIFFUSION?
LARGER AREA= MORE PARTICLES MOVING AT ONE TIME
20 of 148
HOW DOES CONC. GRADIENT AFFECT DIFFUSION?
A STEEP CONC. GRADIENT= MORE MOVE IN, LESS MOVE OUT: NET MOVEMENT HAS MORE MOVING IN
21 of 148
HOW DOES SIZE OF AN ORGANISM AFFECT SA:V RATIO?
THE LARGER THE ORGANISM, THE SMALLER THE SA:V RATIO
22 of 148
HOW DOES SA:V RATIO AFFECT DIFFUSION?
LARGE SA:V RATIO= GASES AND FOODS CAN REACH INSIDE CELLS MORE EASILY, METABOLIC WASTE CAN BE EXTRACTED EASILY.
23 of 148
WHY DO MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS NEED SPECIALISATION?
BECAUSE METABOLIC WASTE CANNOT BE REMOVED QUICK ENOUGH BY SIMPLE DIFFUSION DUE TO SMALL SA:V
24 of 148
EFFECTIVE EXCHANGE SURFACE:
THIN EXHANGE SURFACE; LARGE SA:V RATIO; STEEP CONC. GRADIENT
25 of 148
WHAT ARE THE LEVELS OF ORGANISATION?
CELL- TISSUE-ORGANS-ORGAN SYSTEM-ORGANISM
26 of 148
DEFINE CELL
BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF ALL LIVING ORGANISMS
27 of 148
DEFINE TISSUE
GROUP OF CELLS WITH SIMILAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
28 of 148
DEFINE ORGAN
AGGREGATIONS OF TISSUES PERFORMING SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS
29 of 148
DEFINE ORGAN SYSTEM
SEVERAL ORGANS WORKING TOGETHER TO MAKE ORGANISMS
30 of 148
TEST FOR CARBS
GRIND FOOD; ADD DISTILLED WATER; DISSOLVE; FILTER; HALF FILL TEST TUBE WITH THIS; ADD 10 DROPS OF BENEDICTS SOLUTION; PUT IN HOT WATER BATH FOR 5 MINS; IF SUGAR WILL TURN GREEN/ YELLOW/ BRICK-RED//PUT 5 DROPS OF SOLUTION; ADD IODINE: IF STARCH BLUE
31 of 148
TEST FOR PROTEIN
GRIND FOOD; ADD DISTILLED WATER; DISSOLVE; FILTER; PUT 2CM INTO TEST TUBE; ADD 2CM OF BIURET SOLUTION; SHAKE TO MIX; PROTEINS TAKE PINK/PURPLE
32 of 148
TEST FOR LIPIDS
GRIND FOOD; ADD DISTILLED WATER; DISSOLVE- DON'T FILTER; HALF FILL TEST TUBE; ADD 3 DROPS OF SUDAN III; IF FAT: RED STAINED OIL LAYER IS ON TOP
33 of 148
CARBS:
SIMPLE SUGARS; USED FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND ENERGY
34 of 148
PROTEIN:
LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS; USED FOR STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF TISSUES; HORMONES, ENZYMES AND ANTIBODIES
35 of 148
LIPIDS:
GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS; SOURCE OF ENERGY, INSULATION AND HORMONES
36 of 148
DEFINE ENZYMES.
PROTEINS MADE OF LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS, KEPT FOLDED IN A VERY SPECIFIC SHAPE, ACT AS BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS,CONTROL METABOLISM.
37 of 148
METABOLISM IS...
SUM OF ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A CELL OR BODY
38 of 148
ENZYMES CONTROL...
CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A CELL, ALLOWS CELL CHHEMISTRY TO WORK W/O INTERFERENCE W/ EACH OTHER
39 of 148
HOW DO ENZYMES AND SUBSTRATES WORK?
ACTIVE SITE IS SPECIFIC SHAPE, SUBSTRATE FITS INTO ONLY ONE, LOCK AND KEY ACTIVE SITE HALVES SUBSTRATE LEAVING TWO RELEASED PRODUCTS
40 of 148
ENZYMES ARE...
COMPLEMENTARY TO ONLY ONE SUBSTRATE
41 of 148
ENZYMES CAN ONLY WORK AT THE OPTIMUM pH BECAUSE...
THE ACTIVE SITE BECOMES DENATURED ANYWHERE OUTSIDE OPTIMUM pH
42 of 148
HOW DOES TEMP AFFECT ENZYME RATE OF REACTION?
UP TO OPTIMUM TEMP RATE OF REACTION WILL INCREASE, BEYOND O. T. ACTIVE SITE IS DENATURED.
43 of 148
AMYLASE AND CARBOHYDRASES:
PRODUCED IN SALIVARY GLAND AND PANCREAS; ACTIVE IN MOUTH AND SMALL INTESTINE; BREAKS DOWN CARBS TO SIMPLE SUGARS
44 of 148
LIPASES:
PRODUCED IN STOMACH, PANCREAS AND S INTESTINE; ACTIVE IN S. INTESTINE AND STOMACH; BREAKS DOWN PROTEIN INTO AMINO ACIDS
45 of 148
PROTEASES:
PRODUCED AND ACTIVE IN PANCREAS AND S. INTESTINE; BREAKS DOWN LIPIDS INTO GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS
46 of 148
BILE:
MADE IN LIVER, STORED IN GALL BLADDER, RELEASED INTO S. INTESTINE; ALKALINE TO NEUTRALISE STOMACH ACID; EMULSIFIES TO FORM SMALL DROPLETS THAT INCREASES RATE OF DIGESTION.
47 of 148
DEFINE HEART
AN ORGAN THAT CONTTRACTS TO PUMP OXYGENATED BLOOD AROUND THE BODY AND DEOXYGENATED BLOOD TO THE LUNGS IN ADOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
48 of 148
ADVANTAGE OF DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM:
HIGH PRESSURE TO TISSUES (FASTER) AND LOW TO LUNGS
49 of 148
ARTERIES:
CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM HEART; THICK MUSCULAR ELASTIC WALLS PUMPS BLOOD AT HIGH PRESSURE
50 of 148
VEINS:
CARRY BLOOD INTO HEART; LARGE LUMEN AND VALVES SO CAN ONLY FLOW ONE WAY
51 of 148
CAPILLARIES:
WHERE GAS EXCHANGE TAKE PLACE SO ONE CELL THICK
52 of 148
LEFT VENTRICLE:
THICKER WALLED TO PUMP BLOOD AT HIGH PRESSURE (RIGHT VENTRICLE IS OPPOSITE)
53 of 148
LEFT ATRIUM RECIEVES:
OXYGENATED BLOOD ( RIGHT ATRIUM IS OPPOSITE)
54 of 148
HEART RATE:
CONTROLLED BY GROUP OF CELLS IN RIGHT ATRIUM THAT ACT AS PACEMAKER.
55 of 148
RATE OF BLOOD FLOW...
FLOW= STROKE VOLUME X HEART RATE
56 of 148
BLOOD IS A TISSUE MADE OF...
PLASMA 55%, RED BLOOD CELLS 45%, WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND PLATELETS, BOTH
57 of 148
PLASMA...
BLOOD CELLS SUSPENDED TRANSPORTS PROTEINS AND CHEMICALS
58 of 148
PLATELETS:
TINY BONE MARROW, HELPS CLOTTING STOPS BLEEDING
59 of 148
RBC'S :
CARRY OXYGEN
60 of 148
WBC'S:
PRODUCES ANTIGENS, ANTIBODIES AND PERFORMS PHAGOCYTOSIS
61 of 148
LUNGS:
EXCHANGE GASES BETWEEN AIR AND BODY, O2 AND CO2 BROUGHT TO ALVEOLUS
62 of 148
DEFINE PATHOGEN
MICROORGANISMS WHICH SPREAD COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
63 of 148
4 TYPES OF PATHOGEN
FUNGI, VIRUS, BACTERIA, PROTISTS
64 of 148
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES ARE SPREAD BY...
AIR, CONTACT AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
65 of 148
DISEASES SPREAD BY CONTACT:
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED, BODILY FLUIDS AND CUTS
66 of 148
DISEASES SPREAD BY AIR:
COUGHING, SNEEZING IN DROPLETS
67 of 148
DISEASES SPREAD BY WATER:
UNDERCOOKED FOOD, CONTAMINATED WATER
68 of 148
4 NON SPECIFIC DEFENCE SYSTEMS:
SKIN- A BARRIER PRODUCES ANTIMICROBIAL SECRETIONS DESTROY PATHOGENS; NOSE- HAIRS AND MUCUS TRAP PARTICLES IN AIR; TRACHEA AND BRONCHI- CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MUCUS WAFTED TO BACK OF THROAT BY CILIA; STOMACH- PRODUCES ACID DESTROYS INGESTED
69 of 148
ANTIBIOTICS ARE USED TO...
DESTROY BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
70 of 148
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANTIBIOTICS AND PAINKILLERS
PAINKILLERS ONLY STOP SYMPTOMS NOT PATHOGENS
71 of 148
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT THAT SPECIFIC BACTERIA ARE TREATED BY SPECIFIC ANTIBIOTICS?
TO PREVENT ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND ENSURE PATHOGEN IS DESTROYED COULD KILL BENEFICIAL BACTERIA
72 of 148
WHY IS IT HARDER TO TREAT VIRUSES?
VIRUSES REPRODUCE INSIDE CELL SO DRUGS WOULD DAMAGE HOST CELL TISSUE
73 of 148
HOW TO ENSURE ANTIBIOTICS IN FUTURE?
DEVELOP NEW DRUGS; DOCTORS NEED NOT PRESCRIBE ANTIBIOTICS AND PATIENTS NEED NOT EXPECT THEM
74 of 148
FROM WHAT WERE DRUGS TRADITIONALLY EXTRACTED?
PLANTS AND MICROORGANISMS
75 of 148
EXAMPLES OF DRUGS:
DIGITALIS FROM FOXGLOVES; ASPIRIN FROM WILLOW BARK; PENICILLIN FROM MOULD
76 of 148
HOW ARE DRUGS TODAY MADE?
IN A LAB
77 of 148
WHAT ARE DRUGS TESTED FOR?
DOSAGE, TOXICITY AND EFFICACY
78 of 148
HOW ARE DRUGS TESTED (PRECLINICAL TRIALS)?
CELLS TISSUES AND LIVE ANIMALS
79 of 148
HOW ARE DRUGS TESTED (CLINICAL TRIALS)?
HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS AND PATIENTS, LOW DOSES FOR SAFETY THEN HIGHER DOSES FOR OPTIMUM DOSE.
80 of 148
EXPLAIN DOUBLE BLIND TRIALS
SOME PATIENTS GIVEN NEW DRUG OTHERS GET PLACEBO, NEITHER DOC. NOR PATIENT KNOW WHO HAS WHAT
81 of 148
HOW DO PLANTS MAKE FOOD?
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
82 of 148
DESCRIE PHOTOSYNTHESIS
A GREEN PIGMENT FOUND IN CHLOROPLASTS CALLED CHLOROPHYLLL ABSORBS LIGHT ENERGY FROM SUN
83 of 148
WORD EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CARBON DIOXIDE+ WATER-> GLUCOSE+ OXYGEN
84 of 148
SYMBOL EQUATION FOR PHOTSYNTHESIS
6CO2+6H2O -> 6O2+ C6H12O6
85 of 148
PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS AN ... REACTION
ENDOTHERMICBECAUSE MORE ENERGY IS USED TO BREAK BONDS THAN TO MAKE THEM
86 of 148
GLUCOSE IN PLANTS IS USED FOR...
INSOLUBLE STARCH FOR STORAGE; CELLULOSE TO STRENGTHEN CELL WALS, STORED AS FATS AND OILS; PRODUCE AMINO ACIDS FOR PROTEINS
87 of 148
HOW DO PLANTS GET NITRATES?
FROM SOIL OR CARNIVOROUS PLANTS GET IT FROM INSECTS
88 of 148
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION.
AEROBIC USES OXYGEN AND GLUCOSE TO RELEASE ENERGY. ANAEROBIC IS W/O OXYGEN AND PRODUCES LACTIC ACID
89 of 148
RESPIRATION IS AN..... REACTION
EXOTHERMIC, MORE ENERGY IS USED BREAK BONDS THAN TO MAKE THEM
90 of 148
WHERE DOES AEROBIC RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE?
MITOCHONDRIA
91 of 148
SYMBOL EQUATION FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION
C6H12O6+ 6O2-> 6CO2+ 6H2O +ATP
92 of 148
WHY DOES ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION TAKE PLACE?
OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE IS NOT FULLY COMPLETE
93 of 148
WHAT DOES ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION PRODUCE?
IN ANIMALS IT PRODUCES LACTIC ACID AND IN YEAST CELLS IS CALLED FERMENTATION AND GIVES ETHANOL
94 of 148
FOUR FACTORS WHICH AFFECT RATE OF TRANSPIRATION:
HUMIDITY, TEMP. AIR FLOW (WIND), LIGHT INTENSITY
95 of 148
HOW DOES TEMP. AFFECT RATE OF TRANSPIRATION?
MOLECULES MOVE FASTER, DIFFUSION MORE RAPID. RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS INCREASES, STOMATA OPEN TO LET IN CO2
96 of 148
HOW DOES HUMIDITY AFFECT RATE OF TRANSPIRATION?
HUMID DAY= CONC. GRADIENT STEEP, WATER PARTICLES IN AIR. HUMID= DECREASE IN RATE
97 of 148
HOW DOES AIR FLOW AFFECT RATE OF TRANSPIRATION?
WINDY= INCREASE IN RATE, REMOVES WATER PARTICLES UNDER LEAF MAINTAINING STEEP CONC. GRADIENT SO FAST DIFFUSION
98 of 148
HOW DOES LIGHT INTENSITY AFFECT RATE OF TRANSPIRATION?
MORE STOMATA OPEN SO CO2 CAN ENTER FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS, SO MORE DIFFUSION OF MOLECULES OUT OF LEAF
99 of 148
HOW DO VACCINATIONS WORK?
DEAD/INACTIVE FORM OF PATHOGEN INTRODUCED, DOESN'T GIVE SYMPTOMS; STIMULATES WBC'S TO PRODUCE ANTIBODIES; MEMORY CELLS MADE; IF SAME PATHOGEN RE-ENTERS, CORRECT ANTIBODIES MADE BEFORE SYMPTOMS
100 of 148
HOW DOES HERD IMMUNITY WORK?
LARGE PROPORTION OF COMMUNITY IMMUNISED, SPREAD OF PATHOGEN REDUCED- FEW PEEPS CAN BE INFECTED, PROTECTINGVULNERABLE PEEPS WHO CAN'T BE VACCINATED- NEW-BORNS+ ELDERLY
101 of 148
WHAT ARE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES PRODUCED FROM AND HOW DO THEY WORK?
FROM SINGLE CELL DIVIDED TO MAKE MANY CLONED COPIES OF SELF. EACH ONE SPECIFIC TO ONE BINDING SITE ON ANTIGEN SO CAN TARGET SPECIFIC CELLS.
102 of 148
HOW ARE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES MADE?
INJECT MOUSE W/ SPECIFIC ANTIGEN. MOUSE LYMPHOCYTES MAKE ANTIBODE. COMBINE THIS W/ TUMOUR CELL TO MAKE A HYBRIDOMA CELL: MAKES SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES AND DIVIDES RAPIDLY- PRODUCES CLONE OF CELL.
103 of 148
WHAT ARE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES USED FOR?
PREGNANCY TESTS: BIND TO HCG HORMONE IN URINE IN EARLY PREGNANCY; DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASE: BIND TO ANTIGENS OF PATHOGENS, CARRY MARKERS FOR DOCTORS; BLOOD HORMONE LEVELS; TREATING CANCER: BIND TO DRUG STOPS CANCER
104 of 148
HOW CAN PLANTS BE DAMAGED?
VIRAL, FUNGAL, BACTERIAL PATHOGENS+ PESTS+ MINERAL ION DEFICIENCIES
105 of 148
WHAT DO PLANTS USE NITRATE IONS FOR?
MAKE PROTEINS- W/O GROWTH= STUNTED
106 of 148
WHAT DO PLANTS USE Mg IONS FOR?
TO PRODUCE CHLOROPHYLL- W/O LEAVES YELLOW (CHLOROSIS)
107 of 148
PHYSICAL PLANT DEFENCES:
PREVENT ENTRY: THICK CELL WALL; WAXY CUTICLE; LAYERS OF DEAD CELLS (BARK)
108 of 148
CHEMICAL PLANT DEFENCES:
ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMICALS AND POISONS TO DETER HERBIVORES
109 of 148
MECHANICAL PLANT ADAPTATIONS:
tHORNS+HAIRS, LEAVES THAT DROOP OR CURLWHEN TOUCHED, MIMICRY TO TRICK ANIMALS
110 of 148
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
LIGTH INTENSITY, CO2 CONC. TEMP. CHLOROPHYLL (SEE BOOK FOR GRAPHS)
111 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS DURING EXERCISE?
THE BODY HAS AN INCREASED NEED FOR ENERGY
112 of 148
HOW DOES THE BODY RESPOND TO EXERCISE?
INCREASED HEART RATE AND BLOOD FLOW: INCREASED BLOOD TO MUSCLES TO GIVE OXYGEN FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION RELEASING MORE ENERGY. INCREASED BREATHING RATE AND BREATH VOLUME: MORE AIR TAKEN IN, MORE OXYGEN INTO BLOOD FOR RESPIRATION, RELEASING ENERGY
113 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS DURING VIGOROUS EXERCISE?
MUSCLES BECOME FATIGUED AND PAINFUL. THEY DON'T GET ENOUGH OXYGEN AND PERFORM ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION CREATING AN OXYGEN DEBT AND PRODUCING LACTIC ACID
114 of 148
WHAT IS OXYGEN DEBT?
THE AMOUNT OF EXTRA OXYGEN NEEDED AFTER EXERCISE TO BREAK DOWN LACTIC ACID AND REMOVE IT FROM CELLS.
115 of 148
WHAT IS METABOLISM?
THE SUM OF ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE BODY
116 of 148
METABOLIC PROCESSES ARE:
CONTINUOUS AND CONTROLLED BY ENZYMES. THEY USE ENERGY FROM RESPIRATION TO SYNTHESISE NEW MOLECULES
117 of 148
COMMON METABOLIC REACTIONS:
GLUCOSE TO STARCH,GLYCOGEN (AND CELLULOSE)- GLYCEROL+ 3 FATTY ACIDS TO LIPIDS- GLUCOSE+ NITRATE IONS TO AMINO ACIDS- AMINO ACIDS TO PROTEINS- BREAK DOWN OF PROTEINS TO UREA FOR EXCRETION- RESPIRATION
118 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS DURING THE CELL CYCLE?
STAGE 1: REPLICATION OF DNA TO FORM 2 COPIES OF EACH CHROMSOME+ SYNTHESIS OF NEW SUB-CELLULAR STRUCTURES. STAGE2: MITOSIS, NUCLEUS DIVIDES STAGE3: CYTOKENESIS
119 of 148
WHY IS MITOSIS IMPORTANT?
PRODUCTION OF NEW CELLS- FERTILISED EGGS=EMBRYOS ETC.+ REPLACEMENT DAMAGE/WORN OUT CELLS TO REPAIR TISSUES+ ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION+ ALLOWS MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS TO DIFFERENTIATE
120 of 148
WHAT IS A STEM CELL?
AN UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS, CAPABLE OF GIVING RISE TO MANY MORE CELLS OF SAME TYPE AND FROM WHICH OTHER CELLS CAN ARISE BY DIFFERENTIATION
121 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO STEM CELLS IN EMBRYOS?
DIFFERENTIATE INTO SPECIALISED CELLS BY SWITCHING GENES ON OR OFF, GIVING RISE TO DIFFERENT SUB-CELLULAR STRUCTURES W/INCELLS ALLOWING TO PERFORM SPECIFIC FUNCTION.
122 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO STEM CELLS IN ADULT ANIMALS?
MOST SPECIALISED CELLS CAN DIVIDE THEMSELVES BY MITOSIS TO REPLACE SELVES BUT CANNOT DIFFERENTIATE AGAIN. SOME CAN'T DIVIDE AT ALL SO STEM CELLS REPLACE THESE
123 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO STEM CELLS IN PLANTS?
FOUND IN MERISTEMS- TIPS OF ROOTS+ SHOOTS- MITOSIS TAKES PLACE CONTINUOUSLY, PLANTS GROW THROUGHOUT LIVES. STEM CELLS DIVIDE TO REPLACE SELVES AND PRODUCE CELLS TO DIFFERENTIATE WHEN REACH FINAL POSITION
124 of 148
WHAT IS THERAPEUTIC CLONING?
EMBRYO PRODUCED W/ SAME GENES AS PATIENT SO NOT REJECTED. NOT V SUCCESSFUL+ CANNOT TREAT GENETIC DISORDERS
125 of 148
WHAT IS OSMOSIS
DIFFUSION OF WATER FROM DILUTE TO CONCENTRATED SOLUTION (HIGH WATER CONC. TO LOW WATER CONC.) ACROSS A PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
126 of 148
WHAT IS AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION?
CONC. OF SOLUTE IN SOLUTION OUTSIDE CELL= SAME AS INTERNAL CONC.
127 of 148
WHAT IS A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION?
CONC. OF SOLUTE IN SOLUTION OUTSIDE CELL IS HIGHER THAN INTERNAL CONC.
128 of 148
WHAT IS A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION?
CONC. SOLUTES IN SOLUTION OUTSIDE CELL IS LOWER THAN INTERNAL CONC.
129 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO AN ANIMAL CELL IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION?
CELL LOSES WATER BY OSMOSIS+ SHRIVELS= CRENATION
130 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO AN ANIMAL CELL IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION?
CELL GAINS WATER BY OSIMOSIS+ BURSTS= LYSIS
131 of 148
WHY IS OSMOSIS IMPORTANT IN PLANTS?
USE WATER WITHIN CELL TO GIVE STABILITY
132 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO A PLANT CELL IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION?
GAINS WATER BY OSMOSIS, SWELLS, INCREASE IN TURGOR PRESSURE, BECOMES TURGID
133 of 148
WHAT HAPPENS TO A PLANT CELL IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION?
LOSES WATER BY OSMOSIS, CELL BECOMES FLACCID, NO TURGOR PRESSURE, BECOMES PLASMOLYSED
134 of 148
WHAT IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT?
MOVES SUBSTANCES FROM MORE DILUTE SOLUTION TO CONCENTRATED SOLUTION (AGAINST CONC. GRADIENT) USING ENERGY FROM RESPIRATION
135 of 148
WHY IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT IMPORTANT IN PLANTS?
ALLOWS MINERAL IONS TO BE ABSORBED INTO PLANT ROOTS FROM DILUTE SOLUTIONS IN SOIL, REQUIRED FOR HEALTHY GROWTH.
136 of 148
WHY IS ACTIVE TRANSPORT IMPORTANT IN CELLS?
ALLOWS SUGAR MOLECULES TO BE ABSORBED FROM LOWER CONC. IN GUT INTO BLOOD
137 of 148
WHAT IS CORONARY HEART DISEASE?
CORONARY ARTERIES WHIC SUPPLY HEART W/ BLOOD BECOME NARROW. CAUSED BY BUILD UP OF FATTY MATERIALS ON LINING OF VESSELS. CAUSES PAIN, HEART ATTACK, DEATH
138 of 148
HOW IS CORONARY HEART DISEASE TREATED?
STENT: METAL MESH, OPENED WITH TINY BALLOON, OPENS ARTERY. BYPASS: REPLACE NARROW CORONARY ARTERY W/ BITS OF VEINS FROM OTHER PARTS OF BODY. STATINS: REDUCES BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS.
139 of 148
HOW IS HEART FAILURE TREATED?
TEMPORARY ARTIFICIAL HEART FOLLOWED BY TRANSPLANT
140 of 148
FAULTY VALVES:
VALVES START TO LEAK/BECOME STIFF AND NOT OPEN FULLY= HEART LESS EFFICIENT. BREATHLESSNESS+ DEATH+ REDUCTION IN BLOOD FLOW +OXYGEN TO TISSUES
141 of 148
HOW ARE FAULTY VALVES TREATED?
REPLACED BY BIOLOGICAL- NO MEDICATION BUT ONLY LAST 12-15 YEARS... OR MECHANICAL VALVES- LONGER BUT NEED MEDICATION TO PREVENT CLOTS.
142 of 148
WHAT IS HEALTH?
PHYSICAL+ MENTAL WELLBEING
143 of 148
WHAT IS CANCER?
DISEASE DUE TO ABNORMAL, UNCONTROLLED CELL DIVISION FORMING A TUMOUR
144 of 148
WHAT IS A BENIGN TUMOUR?
FORMS IN ONE PLACE DOESN'T SPREAD TO OTHER TISSUES
145 of 148
WHAT IS A MALIGNANT TUMOUR?
INVADE NEIGHBOURING TISSUES AND SPREAD ELSEWHERE IN BODY FORMING OTHER TUMOURS
146 of 148
RISK FACTORS LEADING TO CANCER?
SMOKING, OBESITY, COMMON VIRUSES+ UV EXPOSURE/ X RAYS
147 of 148
HOW IS CANCER TREATED?
RADIOTHERAPY: CANCER CELLS DESTROYED BY TARGETED DOSES OF RADIATION- STOPS MITOSIS BUT CAN DAMAGE GOOD CELLS. CHEMOTHERAPY: CHEMICALS STOP DIVISION
148 of 148

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

WHAT ARE THE 8 PARTS TO A PLANT CELL?

Back

CYTOPLASM, CELL MEMBRANE, NUCLEUS, RIBOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, CELL WALL, PERMANENT VACUOLE, CHLOROPLASTS.

Card 3

Front

WHAT IS THE CELL WALL MADE OF?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

DESCRIBE HOW A PROKARYOTIC CELL IS DIFFERENT TO A EUKARYOTIC CELL.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

WHAT IS THE EQUATION FOR IMAGE SIZE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cells, tissues and organs resources »