Biological Molecules, Food and Health, Biodiversity F212 Specification

How does hydrogen bonding occur between water molecules?
Water is positively charges at the hydrogen end and negatively charged at the oxygen end (polar molecule), molecules then form hydrogen bonds with eachother between negative and positive attractions
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What are the properties and roles of water?
Solvent (cytoplasm for metabolic processes), Liquid (blood for movement of materials), Cohesion (Transport of water in xylem), Freezing (surface insulates), Thermal Stability (evaporation for sweating) Metabolic (Reactant for photosynthesis)
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Describe the structure of an amino acid
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Describe the structure of an amino acid
A carbon, an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, and R group, and a hydrogen
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Describe the formation and breakage of peptide bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and polypeptides
Dipeptide- 2 amino acids joined- condensation reaction, release H20, forms covalent bond- peptide bond- Dipeptide bonds are broken by hydrolysis reaction using water molecule-Polypeptides longer chain +more bonds- broken down by enzymes- protease
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What is primary structure?
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What is primary structure?
The sequence of amino acids found in a protein molecule- amino acids joined by peptide bonds- specific sequence determined by the R group
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What is secondary structure?
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What is secondary structure?
Hydrogen bonding- The coiling or folding parts of a protein molecule due to the formation of hydrogen bonds formed as a protein is synthesised. The main forms of secondary structure are the alpha helix and the beta sheets.
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What is tertiary structure?
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What is tertiary structure?
The overall 3D shape of a protein molecule. It is the result of interactions between parts of the protein molecule such as hydrogen bonding, formation of disulphide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrophobic interactions.
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What is quaternary structure? (structure of haemoglobin)
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What is quaternary structure? (structure of haemoglobin)
Protein structure where the protein consists of more than one polypeptide chain. E.g. haemoglobin or insulin- Haemoglobin: Four polypeptide sub-units, 2 alpha and 2 beta chains, globular protein, each polypeptide has a haem group containing FE+ ion
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Describe the structure of a collagen molecule
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Describe the structure of a collagen molecule
Fibrous protein, three polypeptide chains wound round eachother, hydrogen bonds hold the chains together, structural, covalent bonds/cross links between collagen molecules for strength
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What are the similarities and differences between haemoglobin (globular protein) and collagen (fibrous protein)?
Globular vs. Fibrous, Soluble vs. Insoluble, Wide range vs. small range of amino acids in primary structure, Has vs. hasn’t a prosthetic group
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Describe the molecular structure of alpha-glucose (monosaccharide carbohydrate)
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Describe the molecular structure of alpha-glucose (monosaccharide carbohydrate)
Hexose sugar (6 carbons)
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What are the structural differences between alpha- and beta-glucose?
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Describe the formation and breakage of glycosidic bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of a disaccharide (maltose) and a polysaccharide (amylose)
2 monosaccharides join together by condensation reaction, covalent bond is called a glycosidic bond, releasing water. To break a glycosidic bond, a hydrolysis reaction takes place, using water to break it. Polysaccharides are longer chains.
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What are the similarities and differences between the structure and functions of starch (amylose) and cellulose?
Both are polysaccharides, alpha vs, beta glucose, both joined by condensation reactions, both insoluble in water, grains vs. strong, energy-storage vs. structural
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What is the structure of glycogen?
Picture
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What is the structure of glycogen?
Branches of (branches easier to break down to release energy 1-6 bonds), alpha glucose chains with 1-4 glycosydic bonds
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How do the structures of glucose, starch (amylose), glycogen and cellulose molecules relate to their functions in living organisms?
Glycogen and starch used for energy storage, cellulose used in cell walls of plants, glucose used for both storage and structure, basis of carbohydrates
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What is the difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipids?
A triglyceride has a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid tails whilst a phospholipids has a phosphate group/head, a glycerol molecule, and only 2 fatty acid tails.
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What is the difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipids?
Picture
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How do the structures of triglyceride, phospholipid and cholesterol molecules relate to their functions in living organisms?
Triglycerides are used for energy storage, phospholipids are used in cell membranes, cholesterol is used to keep the membranes stable
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How do you carry out chemical tests to identify the presence of proteins?
Biuret test- Add Biuret reagent to a sample- Positive result is the solution turns from
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How do you carry out chemical tests to identify the presence of reducing and non-reducing sugars?
Benedict’s- Heat sample with benedicts solution at 80C- positive test for reducing sugar brick red- If test negative, to test for non-reducing sugar, boil sample with HCl, cool and neutralise with sodium hydrogen carbonate repeat benedicts test, red
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How do you carry out chemical tests to identify the presence of starch?
Iodine solution- positive test is brown to blue/black
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How do you carry out chemical tests to identify the presence of lipids?
Emulsion test- Add ethanol and dissolve the extract lipid and poor the alcohol into water in another test tube- positive test is a white emulsion forming near the top of the water
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How can the concentration of glucose (reducing sugar) in a solution be determined using colorimetry?
Positive brick red heated at 80C- More sugar, more precipitate. Precipitate filtered to measure concentration. Colorimeter calibrated to 0 using unreacted Benedicts (control). Solution shows transmission of light- the more transmission=more sugar
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Describe deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A polynucleotide, usually double stranded, made up of nucleotides containing the bases adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G)
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Describe ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A polynucleotide, usually single stranded, made up of nucleotides containing the bases adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C) and guanine (G)
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How are DNA polynucleotides formed?
Hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs (A to T, G to C) on two antiparallel DNA polynucleotides leads to the formation of a DNA molecule
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How is the double helix shape formed?
The twisting of DNA
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How does DNA replicates semi-conservatively?
During transcription, another set of DNA is needed either for a new daughter cell or for protein synthesis. Each new DNA strand consists of one conserved strand plus one newly built strand. Polymerase adds nucleotides to the synthesising strand.
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What is a gene?
A sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a polypeptide (protein)
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What are the roles of DNA and RNA in living organisms?
Protein synthesis- Transcription and Translation
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What is transcription?
Takes place in the nucleus, DNA is unzipped, Complementary DNA nucleotides are hydrogen bonded to the new strand- The assembly of of an mRNA molecule that is a copy of the DNA coding strand
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What is translation?
Translation is the reading of the genetic code by the ribosomes- it reads the mRNA strand and tRNA brings the amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
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What are the purines?
Adenine and Guanine
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What are the pyrimidines?
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine- smaller than purines
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What are enzymes?
Globular proteins, with a specific tertiary structure, which catalyse metabolic reactions in living organisms- may be intracellular or extracellular
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Describe the mechanism of action of enzyme molecules
Lock and key model (enzyme active site complementary to substrate) induced-fit hypothesis (enzyme changes shape to fit substrate molecule), enzyme-substrate complex (opposite charges bind enzyme+ substrate) +lowering of activation energy (catalyst)
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What are the effects of pH on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
Each enzyme has an optimum ph level as the H+ ions (too many or too little) can alter the tertiary structure because of their charge, changing the shape of the active site.
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What are the effects of pH on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
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What are the effects of temperature on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
Increased temp gives molecules more kinetic energy, more collisions more often. If temp is too high then the tertiary structure of enzyme will change and the active site will no longer be complimentary-denatured enzyme. Enzymes have an optimum temp
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What are the effects of temperature on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
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What are the effects of enzyme concentration on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
Fixed substrate concentration, increased enzyme concentration means more active sites available increasing ROR, eventually all the substrate will be occupied in an enzyme active site (substrate concentration is a limiting factor)
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What are the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity- how can they be investigated?
Increased concentration of substrate means an increase of collisions and of the rate of reaction. Rate of reaction will level off at the point where all the active sites are occupied.
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What are the effects of a competitive inhibitor on the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions?
Similar shape to the substrate and can occupy the active site, reducing ROR, by increasing the concentration of the substrate, you effectively dilute the effect of the inhibitor (reversible inhibitor)
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What are the effects of a competitive inhibitor on the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions?
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What are the effects of a non-competitive inhibitor on the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions?
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What are the effects of a non-competitive inhibitor on the rate of enzyme-controlled reactions?
Attach to the enzyme away from the active site, distorting the tertiary structure of the enzyme, changing the active site- increasing substrate concentration will have no effect, ROR reduced/stopped (reversible inhibitor)
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What is the importance of cofactors and coenzymes in enzyme-controlled reactions?
.Enzymes need presence of another substance in order to function. They attach to enzyme and alter the shape of the active site. Changing the active site may allow the substrates to fit into the active site better.
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What are metabolic poisons and what do they do?
.Metabolic poisons may be enzyme inhibitors. Alpha-amanitin found in death cap mushroom +inhibits enzymes. Enzyme it inhibits are the ones that catalyse the production of RNA from DNA. If this poison inhibits enzymes, cells cannot synthesise proteins
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State that some medicinal drugs work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes
.
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What is a balanced diet?
A balanced diet is one that contains all the nutrients required for health in appropriate proportions.
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What can an unbalanced diet lead to?
It can lead to malnutrition and obesity
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What are the links between diet and coronary heart disease?
Salt reduce water potential in blood, increase water content, increase blood pressure, damages arteries- Saturated fats hard to break down, no double bonds- Cholesterol carried to the body tissues by LDLs, deposition in artery walls, atherosclerosis
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What are the effects of a high blood cholesterol level on the heart and circulatory system?
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) carry cholesterol from body tissues to liver to be broken down, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) carry cholesterol from liver to body tissues where it is deposited in the artery walls. This causes atherosclerosis
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Why do humans depend on plants for food?
They are the basis of all food chains
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How is selective breeding used to produce crop plants with high yields, disease resistance and pest resistance?
By breeding animals or plants with a characteristic you desire, the trait will be passed down to the offspring (artificial selection) These desirable characteristics, such as resistance, may be due to a mutation in the DNA.
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How does the use of fertilisers and pesticides with plants and the use of antibiotics with animals increase food production?
Fertilisers replace minerals in the soil, increasing the rate of growth. Pesticides kill organisms that could cause disease to the crop. Antibiotics reduce the spread of disease amongst livestock.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using microorganisms to make food for human consumption?
Faster than animal/plant production, production can meet demand, no animal welfare issues, source of protein, no fat or cholesterol. Not as palatable as other sources, risk of infection with wrong organisms,has to be purified and isolated from source
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How does salting, drying and adding sugar prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
These processes dehydrate any microorganisms as water leaves them by osmosis.
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How does pickling prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
This uses an acid ph to kill microorganisms by denaturing their enzymes and other proteins
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How does freezing prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
These do not kill microorganisms, but ****** enzyme activity so their metabolism, growth, and reproduction is slow.
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How does heat treatment prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
Cooking denatures enzymes and other proteins and kills the microorganisms, Smoking hardens the surface and the smoke contains antibacterial chemicals, pasteurisation (high heat followed by rapid cooling, kills microorganism
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How does irradiation prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
Kills the microorganisms by disrupting their DNA structure
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What is health?
Health is a state of mental, physical, and social well-being, not just the absence of disease
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What is a disease?
Disease is a departure from good health caused by a malfunction in the mind or body.
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What is a parasite?
A parasite is an organism that lives in or on another living thing, causing harm to its host.
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What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is an organism that causes disease- they travel from one host to another, they get into the host’s tissues, they reproduce and they cause damage to the host’s tissues
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How are pathogens transmitted?
By mean of a vector (an organism that carries a disease-causing organism from one host to another), by physical contact or by droplet infection
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What are the causes and means of transmission of Malaria?
Malaria is spread by a vector (mosquito)- they feed on the blood, and malarial parasites in the saliva then live in the red blood cells of the host and feeds on the haemoglobin
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What are the causes and means of transmission of HIV/AIDS?
It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Can be transmitted by exchange of body fluids (e.g. unprotected sex, unscreened blood transfusions, unsterilised surgical equipment, breast feeding) + can travel across the placenta during childbirth
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What are the causes and means of transmission of TB?
It is caused by a bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M.bovis) It is transmitted by droplet infection- coughs, sneezes, laughs. Easy to inhale.
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What is the global impact of Malaria?
3 million people die each year, an increasing number due to global warming as the mosquito can live in more countries.
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What is the global impact of HIV/AIDS?
A worldwide disease, pandemics, by 2005 over 30 million had died from HIV/AIDS, opportunistic diseases.
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What is the global impact of TB?
A worldwide disease, and is becoming resistant to drugs. 2005 approx. 2 million died of TB and many more infected by mycobacterium. Areas with poor water quality.
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What causes poor health?
Poverty, poor nutrition, poor hygiene, civil unrest/warfare, poor health services, lack of clean water
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What is the immune response?
The immune response is the specific response to a pathogen, which involves the action of lymphocytes and the production of antibodies.
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What is an antigen?
A foreign molecule (may be a protein or a glycoprotein) that can provoke an immune response. Organisms have antigens on their plasma (cell surface) membrane.
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What is an antibody?
Protein molecules released by the immune system in response to an antigen, which are capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen.
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What are the primary defences against pathogens and parasites?
Skin and mucus membranes- skin has a layer of dead cells (keratinisation)- mucus in airways produced by goblet cells + cilia
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Describe the structure and mode of action of phagocytes
Secondary response- Neutrophils + macrophages- produced in marrow- travel in blood- engulf + destroy pathogen- foreign molecule recognised by antigen- antibodies attach to antigen- pathogen trapped in phagosome + digest
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Describe the structure of an antibody
Picture
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What is the mode of action of antibodies?
Neutralisation (antibody binds to antigen on pathogen to prevent it attaching to the receptor site of a host cell) and agglutination (variable regions bind to pathogens so that they are too big to enter a body cell) of pathogens
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What is the structure and mode of action of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes?
Receptors complement foreign antigen. Cell releases cytokine -cell signalling. Macs. (antigen presenting) find complementary lymphocytes. Macs.release monokines, stimulate B cell to make antibody. T,B cell + macs. release interleukins-differentiation
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What are the similarities and differences between the primary and secondary immune responses?
The primary immune response is when antibodies are (slowly) produced in response to a pathogen; the secondary immune response is the response to the same pathogen as it is recognised and so antibodies are produced much more quickly.
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What is passive immunity?
Immunity acquired without activation of the lymphocytes. It is provided by antibodies that have not been manufactured by stimulating the immune system (breast feeding, injection, through the placenta)
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What is active immunity?
Immunity acquired by activation of the immune system.
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What is artificial immunity?
Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies.
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What is natural immunity?
Immunity acquired through exposure to disease during the normal course of life.
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Give an example of natural active immunity
Immunity provided by antibodies made in the immune system as a result of infection e.g. chicken pocks
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Give an example of artificial active immunity
Immunity provided by antibodies as a result of vaccination- a weakened, dead or similar pathogen, or with antigens, activating the immune system.
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Give and example of natural passive immunity
Antibodies provided via the placenta or breast milk
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Give an example of artificial passive immunity
Immunity provided by injection of antibodies made by another individual (e.g. tetanus injections.)
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How does vaccination control disease?
Vaccination is artificial immunity + uses weak or dead form of pathogen to provide immunity to those at risk. Herd vaccination provides immunity to majority (80%) to keep population safe. Ring vaccination immunises people in the immediate vicinity.
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What are the responses of government and other organisations to the threat of new strains of influenza each year?
In order to avoid a pandemic, governments introduce vaccination programmes for groups at risk, such as the elderly, young children, or pregnant women
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What are the possible new sources of medicines?
New drugs needed as bacteria become resistant + there are new diseases. Need new antibiotics (microorganisms) and plants (from rainforests) shows need to maintain biodiversity to look at the genome of plants to discover how they produce antibiotics
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What are the short-term effects of smoking?
Short term effects- tar lies in the surface of the airways, increasing the diffusion distance for oxygen, allergic reactions, tar destroys cilia so mucus collects in the airways, bacteria can get trapped in mucus
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What are the long-term effects of smoking?
Long term- scar tissue from coughing, infections from bacteria, white blood cells enzymes wreck linings
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What are the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system?
Chronic bronchitis (inflammation of airway linings), emphysema (loss of elasticity in the alveoli- burst reducing surface area in lungs), [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] and lung cancer (carcinogenic compounds cause mutations of DNA)
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What are the effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke on the cardiovascular system?
Atherosclerosis, CHD + stroke- nicotine raises blood press, platelets sticky + constricts arterioles- carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin, less O2 in blood, damages endothelium, repair by phagocytes, smooth muscle and fatty deposits- cholesterol
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What is the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking cigarette smoking to disease and early death?
As smoking became more widespread, no. of deaths per year from lung cancer also rose. Regular smoker 3x more likely to die prematurely, 50% of smokers will die of a smoking-related disease, 25% of smokers die from lung cancer. Dogs were tested.
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What is a species?
A group of organisms whose members are similar to each other in appearance (morphology), physiology, biochemistry and behaviour. They can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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What is a habitat?
The place where an organism or population lives. It includes climatic, topographic and edaphic factors as well as the plants and animals that live there.
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What is biodiversity?
The number and variety of living things to be found in the world, an ecosystem or in a habitat.
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How may biodiversity be considered at different levels?
Habitat, species and genetic
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What is the importance of sampling in measuring the biodiversity of a habitat?
Gather an accurate representation of a population or a habitat in order to estimate all the species present.
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How can random samples be taken when measuring biodiversity?
Avoid bias + have an accurate representation of area, random no. generator or using coordinates, more samples taken the more accurate the survey. Quadrat to measure percentage cover or using ACFOR scale. Animals can be sampled with sweep nets, pooter
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What is species richness?
The number of species found in a habitat
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What is species evenness?
The number of individuals in each species
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How can we measure species richness and species evenness in a habitat?
Percentage cover, surveying density by marking and recapture, Simpsons index of diversity.
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Calculate the biodiversity of a habitat with Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D), using the formula D = 1-(Σ(n/N)2)
.
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What is the significance of both high and low values of Simpson’s Index of Diversity?
High value indicates a diverse habitat (environmental change will not have a huge impact), Low value indicates few species in the habitat (environmental impact could destroy the whole habitat)
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What is classification?
The organisation of living organisms (or other items) into groups according to their shared similarities.
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What is phylogeny?
The evolutionary relationships between organisms.
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What is taxonomy?
The study of the principles between behind classification.
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What is the relationship between classification and phylogeny?
It shows how some species share a common ancestor by looking at the evolutionary tree, showing how closely some species are related to each other.
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How are species classified into the taxonomic hierarchy of domain?
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and
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What are the characteristic features of Prokaryotae (Monera)?
Have no nucleus, naked strand of DNA, no membrane-bound organelles, smaller ribosomes then eukaryotes, repiration carried out on plasma membrane, bacteria.
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What are the characteristic features of Protoctista?
Eukaryotic, single-celled, mostly free-living, can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
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What are the characteristic features of Animalia?
Heterotrophic, eukaryotes, multicellular, can move around
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What are the characteristic features of Fungi?
Eukaryotes, have mycelium (consisting of hyphae), cell walls made of chitin, cause decay of organic matter
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What are the characteristic features of Plantae?
Multicellular eukaryote, cell walls made of cellulose, autotrophic.
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Give an example of the binomial system of nomenclature and the use of scientific (Latin) names for species
The genus and the species name are used to identify each species e.g. Homo Sapiens
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Why were classification systems originally based on observable features but more recent approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms, including molecular evidence?
Invention of the microscope showed inside cells, earlier only had appearance and anatomy to judge by- now look at physiology and biochemistry- by looking at the genetic code
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Compare and contrast the five kingdom and three domain classification systems
Three domains (split prokaryotes into) Bacteria [eubacteria] Archaea [archaebacteria/ and eukaryotae, as archaea has much more similar aspects as eukaryotes- similar enzymes and DNA replication
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What is variation?
The presence of differences between individuals
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How does variation occur within as well as between species?
Variation between species is what separates one species from another, variation within the species is due to different alleles or genetic mutations.
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What are the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation?
Continuous variation may be the height in humans or the length of leaves in a plant, discontinuous variation may be the sex of a plant or mammal, some bacteria have flagella others not, or human blood groups.
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How do both genetics and environment cause of variation?
Inherited alleles, recessive or dominant, determine the characteristics of an individual- never a complete match with someone else. Environmentally, over-feeding, skin colour due to sunlight, the direction a plant grows can all change.
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What are the behavioural, physiological and anatomical (structural) adaptations of organisms to their environments?
Adapt to survive- behaviour helps to survive conditions- xerophytes close stomata or roll leaves in water shortage. Physiological- functioning of cell processes- cacti accordion-like stores water in stem. Anatomical- shallow, long, widespread roots
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What are the consequences of the four observations made by Darwin in proposing his theory of natural selection?
The principle of natural selection- variation caused species change and better adaptations- adaptations increase chance of survival against environment- leads to speciation
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What is speciation?
The formation of a new species from a pre-existing one.
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What is the evidence supporting the theory of evolution?
Old species died- fossils of archaeopteryx, new species have arisen, organisms more complex, species with similar biological molecules, common ancestor, sequence of amino acids in cyochrome c show variation, DNA structures show differences.
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How are variation, adaptation and selection major components of evolution?
Genetic varation must occur first, selective pressures from the environment will mean individuals with an advantage will survive and reproduce, passing on characteristics. Over time the organisms will have adapted better to their environment.
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Why has the evolution of pesticide resistance in insects and drug resistance in microorganisms had implications for humans?
With resistance to pesticides, individual survives, pass on trait till entire population is resistant- insects break down insecticide with enzymes. Disease can damage crops. Unfinished courses of antibiotics means remaining bacteria become resistant
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What are the reasons for the conservation of animal and plant species?
Maintain biodiversity + gene pool- avoid extinction due to human activity- Economic, ecological, ethical and aesthetic reasons- Solutions to problems- atmosphere, climate, fresh water, soil fertilisation, recycling wastes, timber, food + fuel
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What are the consequences of global climate change on the biodiversity of plants and animals?
Genetic erosion, reduce gene pool + variation, animals can't cope with changing environment + patterns of agriculture and spread of disease- longer growing seasons, higher temps increase growth, greater precipitation, loss of land. New diseases
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What are the benefits for agriculture of maintaining the biodiversity of animal and plant species?
Could lose the solution to many of our problems- Many plants in rainforests have adapted to the pests and diseases around them – Breed new crop varieties that can cope with climate change. New medicines.
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Describe the conservation of endangered plant and animal species in situ?
Legislation to stop hunting, logging protects wildlife, conservation parks permanently protect biodiversity, scientific research, repopulation; conflict with locals due to economic, hunting, tourism issues.
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Describe the conservation of endangered plant and animal species ex situ?
Zoos concentrate on breeding endangered species, repopulation, genetic material can be preserved with sperm freezing, IVF; still little genetic diversity, reducing gene pool, find it difficult to return to the wild, may not breed.
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What is the role of botanic gardens in the ex situ conservation of rare plant species or plant species extinct in the wild?
Seed banks increase the number of individuals, collect seeds from the wild (easier than animals) can replant and repopulate species, seeds can be frozen, preserving rarest species; seeds can deteriorate, genetically identical reducing gene pool.
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What is the importance of international co-operation in species conservation?
Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)- Ensures international trade of wildlife doesn’t threaten survival, monitors trade, hard to enforce- Rio Convention on Biodiv.- sustainable development, ex situ, conserve biodiversity
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What is the significance of environmental impact assessments (including biodiversity estimates) for local authority planning decisions?
Necessary before new roads, housing, or airports are built. Prevents damage to biodiversity, ensures predicted environmental impact is publicly known before action taken. Improves planning development. Environmentally acceptable.
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What are the properties and roles of water?

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Solvent (cytoplasm for metabolic processes), Liquid (blood for movement of materials), Cohesion (Transport of water in xylem), Freezing (surface insulates), Thermal Stability (evaporation for sweating) Metabolic (Reactant for photosynthesis)

Card 3

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Describe the structure of an amino acid

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Card 4

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Describe the structure of an amino acid

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the formation and breakage of peptide bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and polypeptides

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