Biological Foundations of Psychology

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1.Why is it important to understand neural signal transmission?
As to understand how the brain works, we need to understand how it transmits signals.
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2.Name two things understanding neural signalling helps us to understand?
How anaesthetics work. How anti depressents work. How drugs affect the brain.
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3. What cells are the building blocks of the nervous system?
Neurons and Glia.
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4. What do the many different types of neurons do?
They receive, process and transmit information. What they do underlies their structure.
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5. Name three types of neurons and discuss their structural differences?
Multipolar - Many dendrites, one axon. Bipolar - one dendrite and one axon at each end. Unipolar - one branch leaves cell body, spreads in two directions.
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6. Glial cells two main functions?
Protective and metabolic.
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7. Name the 4 types of glia and say what they do?
Astrocytes - provides physical support by attaching to blood vessels, Oligodendrocytes - supports axons, Schwann cells - are oligodendrocytes but in the pns. Microglia - aren't really gilia they are part of the brains ammune system.
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8. How do neurons transmit signals?
By the flow of ions in and out of cells.
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9. What are postive ions and negative ions called?
+Cations. -Anions
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10. Where do ion concentrations differ?
Between the inside and outside of cells.
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11. What is fully permeable?
If a membrane allows all particles to diffuse through it.
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12. What are ion channels?
Pores in the neuronal cell membranes which are made up of large proteinds that allow certain ions to pass through. Because of these channels neuronal call membranes are semi-permeable.
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13. What is the membrane potential and what is it a result of?
An electric potential across their membranes, result of; differences in ionic concentrations between inside and outside of the cell. ion channels that only allow certain ions to pass through.
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14. How can membrane potential be measured?
By electrodes.
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15. What is meant by electric potential?
The strength of an electric field.
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16. What is resting membrane potential?
The electric potential of the cell membrane of a neuron at rest. The inside is more negative than the outside (negative potential)
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17. What does resting membrane potential create?
A difference in electric potential due to the difference in charges on the outside and inside.
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18. Why do neurons have a resting potential?
As when ions are at rest only K+ ions can move in and out. As the concentration of K+ is higher on the inside than out some leave. This creates a negative charge as the negative An- can't leave from inside the cell.
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19. Why are there more K+ ions inside the cell in the first place?
Because of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+). An ion channel that pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into it. uses energy from the atp to do this.
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20. What is Hyperpolarization and depolarization?
Hyperpolarization - increase in resting potential (more negative. Depolarization - decrease in resting potential (less negative).
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21. Depolarization and Hyperpolarization make what sum?
The sum of membrane potential.
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22. When does action potential occur?
When depolarization exceeds a threshold. Momentarily reverses membrane potential. It repolarises quickly.
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23. What are voltage gated channels?
Ion channels that open or close depending on membrane potential.
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24. How do voltage gated channels work?
The voltage sensor "paddle" changes shape depedning on membrane potential causing the channel to open or close.
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25. What causes volted gated channels to open?
Begins to open when membrane is depolarized. Na+ ions diffuse from the outside of the cell causing further depolarisation of the cell.
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26. What causes volted gated channels to close?
When membrane potential is reached. Then voltage-gated k+ channels open, K+ leave making the cell neagtive again.
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27. When is a chain reaction of AP depolarisation caused?
If an AP depolarizes the neighbouring membrane beyond threshold it sets off an AP in the neighbouring region. This causes a chain reaction which spreads across the axon.
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28.Why does AP travel in one direction?
Due to the refractory period. Cells become inactivated for a while after AP so the Ap can only spread to a region of a membrane that has not recently under gone an AP.
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29. What is saltatory conduction? How is this linked to MS?
When impulses leap from node to node. Note - MS breaks down myelin sheets preventing saltatory conduction meaning nerve impulses can no longer be transmitted effectiviely causing ms symptons e.g loss of muscle control, loss of sensation.
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Card 2

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2.Name two things understanding neural signalling helps us to understand?

Back

How anaesthetics work. How anti depressents work. How drugs affect the brain.

Card 3

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3. What cells are the building blocks of the nervous system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. What do the many different types of neurons do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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5. Name three types of neurons and discuss their structural differences?

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