Biological basis of behaviour

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Behavior produces three responses from where?
Nervous, endocrine and immune
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what does each system do?
immune- protects body from infection. Endocrine- maintains and regulates bodies internal state. controls growth. Nervous system- co ordinates rapid and precise responses to stimuli
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How is behavior generated
registered, transformed and generated
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what is behavior?
internally co-ordinated response to organisms to their internal environment
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What is the difference in complex and single cell behavior?
complex- specific receptor cells, chemical changes in other cells, eventually leading to behavour
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what is the nervous system made up from?
electro chemical active cells specialized to communicate with eachother
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Give examples of uncentralised nervous system
uncentralised, no spinal cord. Sea star and Hydra
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give examples of centralised nervous system
flatworm, leech, insect, nerve cords
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what two systems make up the peripheral nervous system
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
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what is the somatic nervous system?
input from sense organs, output to skeletal muscles. voluntary
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what is the autonomic nervous system?
no input, output to muscle glands. involunatry. sympathetic- fight and flight. parasympethetic rest and maintenance
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what is the central nervous system made from?
brain, eye, and spinal cord
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what is the peripheral nervous system?
peripheral nerves. hierarchy of nerves
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what is the function of the nervous system?
control and co-ordinate behaviour. enables organism to respond quickly with high precision to stimuli in the envoronment
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what are things to do without a brain?
sensory signals from the body not head, enter cns via spinal cord. reflexes generated here. motor signals to the body leave cns via spinal cord (ventral roote)
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describe the process of the mono synaptic reflex arc. Knee jerk reflex
specific receptors (muscle spindles) inside muscle fibre activate sensory neuron when muscle is stretched. axons enter spinal cord via dorsal route, and connect directly to the motor neuron which exit spinal cord via ventral route.
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what are properties of monosynaptic refex arcs?
they activate the same muscle from where the signal was activated from. can have additional synaptic connections. resist and damped quick stretching of skeletal muscles. smooth stable movemnet
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activity of muscles and gland must...
be registered and fed back into the nervous system
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define the properties of a polysynaptic reflex arc
more flexible. sensory and motor neurons. connect via one or more interneurons. receptor and effector at difference places. (withdraw reflex)
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what can the spinal cord do?
generate complex movement patterns (walking). not volunatry. elicted in response to apporpriate stimulation. no brain
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what can you do with a brain in ref to detection and transmission of sensory signals
specialised receptor cells, mostly not neurons but connected to sensory nerurons. not just 5 senses
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what is sensory adaptation?
getting used to a specific stimulus. we only sense things when they are changing. change detection
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what are myelinated axons?
sent by sensory neurons except the head to the spinal cord. precise location. axons reach the top of spinal cord: medulla. Poorly localised-synapse with other neurons
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what are cranial nerves?
sensory nerurons from the head send axons directly into the brain via cranial nerves (optic nerve) transmitted via several relay station
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What is informational processing?
each station intergrates with other incoming stimuli from lower, higher, same level processing stages. intergrates. processing before signal reaches the brain
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What is the brain stem?
Consists of hindbrain and midbrain. NOT CEREBELLUM. Medulla and pons- where spinal cord meets brain. contains several nuclei of autonomic ns. fight/flight. Hindbrain:medualla, pons and cerebellum. midbrain, combines info from different senses/attenti
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what does the cerebellum do?
balance and motor leanring
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What is the forebrain/diencephalon?
Thalamus- relay station for incoming signals. hypothalamus- directly connected to pituitary glad, gateway to ES. NS influences ES cia hypothalamus
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what is the forebrain telecephalon?
cerebral hemisperes and basal ganglia
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what is the basal ganglia?
nuclei surrounding the thalamuis. motor control. amygdala closesly realated to this system. functionally part of the lybic system
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what are the cerebral hemispheres?
highly simular hemispheres. covered in cerebral coretex (neurons) contains several groups of subcortical nuclei. recieves and sends info to contralateral sides.
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what is grey and white matter?
grey- cortex and subcorical nuclei. cell bodies. white- mylinated axons of neurons
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what is the limbic system?
in the forebrain. emotion and memory. several interconnected cortical and subcortical areas. connected via the hypothalamus and septum/olfactory system. subcortical- fornix, mammilary bodies, amyglada and hippocampus. cortical- cingulate cortex
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what is the corpus collosum in the forebrain?
thick bundle of axons connecting the two hemispheres. all singal between hemispheres via cc
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what is the cerebral coretex?
frontal lobe-planning and motor, parietal lobs- somatosensroy perception, occipital lobe- visual. temporal lobe- auditory perceptoion
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what is the difference between gyrus and sulcus?
gyrus folds outwards and sulcus inwardly folds. longtitudinal fissure is the largest sulci whihc seperated both hemispheres. smaller sulci are boundries of the lobes
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how does signal transmission/interpretation with a brain?
sensory signals from receptor cells to sensory neurons, spinal cord-thalamus, primary sensory cortex. all signals are indenticle. singal interpretation depends on the location in the brain where it arrives
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what is topographic representation?
in each sensory area, singals arrive at a position corresponding to the posiitition of the recepetor cell. body shape is mapped onto somatosensory corex. retinotopoc map- visial singals. tonotopic-auditory
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What is the direction of signal transfer?
neurons transmit signals in one direction. from the dendrites to axon terminals. they recieve signals from difference sources. feedback. combination of feedback. not passiovely fed forward. modified.
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Define how motor input is involved in signaling.
motor areas located in the frontal cortex and boundary to the parietal cortex. motor cortex and premotor cotex-planning, monitoring and guiding movement. primary motor cortex- final execution stage. motor neurons sent directly down to the spinal cord
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what cortcial motor areas connected?
basal ganglia- modulate and inhibit movement. cerebellum- maintaining balance and posture, timing of movement.
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what are neurons good for?
complex organisms, cell inside of the body not in contact with the outside world. they live in different environments so are specialised. cell activity must be coordinated
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what do the two systems do to co-ordinate cell activity?
ns-fast, coordinated, specilised to transmit electrical impulses between two or more cells. ES- slow coordination, secretes hormones into the blood stream
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what do neural impulses do?
provide constant and rapid communication between cells. they are the basis for constant and rapid conrtrol and adjustment of ongoing cell activity.
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why are neurons special?
allow selective control of specific target strucures. modifies activity of target cells. Function- to generate and transmit electrical impulses
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what is structured communication within the neuron?
electrical activity modulated by intergrated input from other cell. input used to adjust output. combination and intergration of signals from different sources
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describe the neurons form and size
develop from stem cells. they dont divide. no possiility to store energy so glucose and sugar must be constantly supplied. without this the neurons stop working and die. Neurogenisis- completed after 5 months after conceptoion. neural death is normal
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what are glia cells?
provide protected envrionment for neurons to survive. develop from neural stem cells. 10x as many glia cells than neurons but 1/10 of the size
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what are Astrocytes
star shaped glia cells. physical and nutritional support for neurons. blood brain barrier transport nutirents from the blood vessels to the neuron. waste products away
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what are microglia?
small for defensive functioning. produce chemicas that aid repair of damaged neurons . phagocytosis
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what are oligodendroglia?
large flat branches wrapping around axons. fatty substance insulating the axons, myelin as a sheath
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what is the resting potential
inside is - and outide is +. not generating nerve impulses. concentratino and electrical gradient.
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what are protein channels?
in the permable membrane they allow ions to enter and leave the cell. ion concentrations differ in and out of the cell
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what is electro-tonic transmission?
passive, ions move inside the cell along the electical grandient. some ions get lost. signal decay over time
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what is the sodium potassium pump?
active, works against the equilibrium. -70mv. neurons need energy to maintain their resting potential
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what is signal transmission?
based on the movement of ions (electrically charged particles) ion specific channels in the cell membrane open by chance or they are gates or by stimulation
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what is depolarisation?
positive ions move in and negative ions move out. therefore the inside is less negative thatn usual
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what is hyperpolarisation?
negative ions move in and positive ions move out. therefore inside is more negative than usual
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what are action potentials?
active self replicating. no decay. ions move locally through the membrane. generated at the axon hillock. moves down the axon towards termminal.
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what are volted gated membrane channels?
sodium NA, channels open or close in response to electrical changes in the membrane. NA channels open, NA+ ions flow inside = depolarising further
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What is the Hodgkin- Huxley cycle?
Electrical stimulation-membrane depolarises- NA channels open and NA influx which then depolarises membrane further
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What is the threshold potential?
membrane potential below -50MV at axon hillock=return to resting potential. membrane depolarised-+50MV. Na channels have opened. If memebrane reaches threshold all Na channels in area open simulatenous-AP
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What happens after the threshold has been reached? +50MV
+/- ions enter or leave the cell. complete depolarisation. NA channels close. K channel open, K+ rush out of the cell. K channels close when RP is restored. Briefly less K+ inside than out- hyperpolarised. more - than usual
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what is the conduction of the action potential?
orgionatres at the axon hillcok and travels down the axon. Each burst of depolarisation acts as a trigger, opening adjacent NA+ channels. DOESNT travel backwards. membrane more difficult to depaolaise (hyp) adjacent bit easier to depolairse.
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What are the properties of an action potential?
fast, 1-2ms.no decay. always strong enough the depolarise adjacent membrane... ALL or nothing phenomena. cannot be generated with different intensities. cannot be produced continuously.
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what is saltatory conduction?
in mammels the axons of sensory and motor neurons are myleinated. this insulates and prevets ion inflow and outflow.
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What are the nodes of ranvier?
gaps that interrupt insulation every 1-2mm. AP jumps from node to node. Only at the nodes can a new AP be generated
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What is signal transmission in the neuron?
electrical inpulses cannot be modified. information is coded. qualitatice- determined in place in brain where signal is recieved. quantitative- how stong a stimulus is. Neuron firing rate. speed
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What structures are involved in synaptic transmission?
pre and post synaptic neuron. synaptic cleft, dendric spine, axon terminal. In the presynaptic neurone there are vesicles filled with neurotransmitters. Calcim ion channels on the membrane.
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What is the process of synaptic transmission?
AP arrives. CA+ ions ebter axon terminal. vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane. Release NT into cleft. NT binds to ion channels on receptor site. ion channels open. ions enter postsynaptic neuron.generating postsynaptic potential. NT removed.close
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What do voltage gated channels do?
open in response to change in membrane potential. K/Na+ channels in axon hillcok and axon. All respond to charge on iside of the membrane. depolarisation
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what are transmitter gated ion channels?
open in response to NT binding with the channels on the receptor site on postsynaptoc membrane.
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ionotropic transmitter
channels open directly
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metabotopic transmitter
transmitter channels open indirectly. G protein secondary messanger
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What is the lock and key principle?
lock-receptor. key- NT. door- protein. NT only fits into specific receptor sites. which type of ion entering the postsynaptic neuron depends on the type of channels that opnens it. depends on NT that has been released and the receptor site
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what are excitatory and inhibitory synapses?
excitatory- (+) ions enter, depolarisation. AP more likely. Inhibitory synapes- (-) ions enter, hyperpolarisation. AP less likely. type of NT released by axon terminal determines if the synapse is excitatory or inhibitory
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what is postsynaptic sumation?
single PSP insufficent to trigger new AP. generator potential= build up in postsynaptic cell. slow graded. GP intergrates changes caused by AP
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what is temporal and spatial summation?
temporal- combination of PSP in rapid succession and spatial summation is combination of PSP in close proximity at different synapes.
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explain neurotransmitter removal
NT do not change when they bind to a receptor . they have to be actively removed to stop their influence on the post synaptic cell.
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what is degredation?
degredation- special enzymes in the cleft breakdown inactive NT, recycle.
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what is reuptake
receptor molecules at presynaptic axon terminal take NT and return them to cell
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what are different types of neurotransmitters?
based on chemical structure. amines, amino acids, peptide transmitters, gas transmitters. not stores in neuron. sysnthesised when needed
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what are neurotransmitters when based on function
input/output function. Glutamate EXCITATORY from sensory systems. Gaba inhibitory at interneurons. ACH activates muscles fibres
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name some neurtotransmitters and how they modulate information
acetylcholine activates cerebral cortex facilitates learning. dopamine voluntary movement action planning control. noradrenaline increases vigalence and readiness. serotonin calming and reduce impulsive behaviour.
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explain the versatility of neurotransmitters
lock key principle. NT can only bind to specific receptor. receptor only accepts a specific NT. many NT bind with a range of receptors not just one. they can be associated with different functions
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can NT have different affects at different synapses?
yes. NT can have completely different affects at different synapses.D1 and D2 receptor.
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explain NT synthesis
NT are complec molecules and cannot be stored in large amounts so need to be constantly synethsised by the neurons. neurons are chemical factories and te brain depends on the body. live produces some amino acids- NTthe brain is not independant of bod
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what is external and internal drug types
all substances that can cross the blood brain barrier might affect the brain regardless if it is endogenous- produced by the body or exogenous substance from outside the body
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what is a drug?
a substance that even in small quantities has a major effect on bodily functions
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what is a psychoactive drug?
a drug that affects the cns and alters alertness, perceptual, cognitive and or other emotional processes. they all interfere with NT systems
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what are the four functional categories of drugs?
stimulant- increase neural activity. depressents- decrease neural activity. analgesics- relieve pain. hallucogens. all have euphoric effect can crete feeling of well being
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what is direct interferece?
FAKE KEYS. agonist- mimic action of NT bind to site and open channel. antagonist- prevents action. block receptor channel
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what is indirect interference?
interfere with the production and release and removal of NT. agonist- increase avaibality of NT prevent reuptake. antagonist- decrease avaiblity of NT. disrupt production
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how are neurons distributed?
no randomly in NS. cell bodies cluster together, CNS nucleaus and cortex. PNS-ganglion and retina. axons travel in parellel to targget. (optic nerve)
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describe the anatomical and chemical NT pathways
anatomically- nigro striatal pathway. begins in substrania nigra and leads to striatum. chemically- dopaminergic pathway uses dopamine throughout all stages
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explain schitzophrenia
dopaminergic meo limbic cortical pathway- sever mental disorfer. delusions and hallucination. emotional dysfunction. overactive MLC pathwat. too much dopamine, hypersensitve receptors. antipsychotics-antagonist causes movement probs
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explain parkingsons disease
dopaminergic nigro striatal pathway. seveve movement disorder. tembling. degeneration of NSP underactive lack of dopamine. L dopa dompamine precursor. psychiatric effects
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what is psychopharmacology
target structures differ in distrubutions of dopamine receptor. cannot produce selective antagonist on affecting one area.
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what happens in brain development?
produce neurons, place neurons where they belong, connect neurons. not separate phase. to produce neurons a precursor structure must nbe in place
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explain brain development
neural plate-neural groove-neural tube. develop into the spinal cord and brain. then appear distinct sections which form ventricles. retina and optic nerbe are cns
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what is the production and placement of neurons?
neurons and glia develop from neural stem cells. at ventricular inner surface and travel to their destination 5m after gestation. cell proliferation, cell migration, pathway formation
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what is cell proliferation
undifferentiated stem cells grow an extrention to the surface. cell nucleas moves up and duplicates its DNA. nucleas moves down and cell retracrs. cell divides into two
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what is cell division
cells behave differently depending on whether the stem cell has divided horizontally or vertically. vertical split-both daughter cells repeat the process. horizontal split- one daughter cell repeats the process the other moves away no divided.
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what is cell migration
different cells have different places of origin. pyramidal neurons and astrocytes origionate from dorsal area and migrate vertically. inhibitory interneurons and oligodendron originate from venrral areas migrate laterally.
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explain cell migration and the cortex
cortex is not a single homogenous sheet. many types of neurons organised in strucutred layers. brodmann area, diff cortical areas have different architecture. layers to cortical plate
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how to cells know where to go?
find the right direction- growing axons are guided by chemical signals in environment. depending on the location it will have different affinities.
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how do they find the right target structure?
chemo affinity hypothesis. axons from a specific source strutcure are only attracted to chemicals from a specifi target structure. nearby stricures have the wrong smell
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how do neurons find the right target cell?
not chemical. sensory and motor cortices form maps. important for action and control. input and output maps but be systematically linked. depends on co-ordinated electrical activity.
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what is use it or loose it?
initially axons synapse with cells in their target structure. too many synapses develop. pruning- only useful ones maintained. neuron that has lost too many synapses will die.
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what is the difference between a useful and useless synapes?
useful-links to neurons together both active or silent. correlated neural activity. useless- links two neurons that are rarely both active or silent at the same time. uncorrlated.
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why maintain simultaneous synapse?
ordered structure representing structure in the envoronment. energy is not wasted on something contributing to nothing. streghten useful connectinions.learn to see.
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what is hebbian modification?
neural pruning. cells that fire together wire together. correlated neural activity and strenghened. out of sync lose their link- disappear.
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how do nervous systems change?
increased neural activity can cause molecular change at the synapse. baseline activity-no stimulation. AP generated random. more frequent-excitatory
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how do changes become more perminant?
increased neural activity can cause lasting structural change. sustained activity, frequent AP for a long time. growth of new synapses or synaptic take over.
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which structures are particulary involved?
damage to diff structures can lead to specific memory loss. cortex- no specific place. loss of memory related to the size of lesion rather than site (law of mass action)
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what happens when there is a high frequency of AP?
cause increase NT release or number of receptor molecules increase
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what is learning?
rewiring your brain. optimise existing beh by increasing transmission rate, react more quickly. acquiring new beh, growth of a new synapse allow combine info for previously unrelated source respond in new way
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explain HM patient
medial temporal lobe damage. structures removed to treat epilepsy. hippocampus, anygdala surrounding cortex. AA, but could remmeber before. learn events implicitly. aware of condiion. no impairment of intellect or reason.
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explain korsakoffs syndrome
chronic alcoholism, thiamine def. degeneraion of neurons in nuclei in thalamus, mamillary bodies. AA, RA, impaired intelect. unaware of condition
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explain memory and emotion
PTSD inability to forget traumatic exp. flashbacks, concentration problems, unknown why. stress hormones.
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explain hormone
chemicals generated by the endocrine system. transported to brain via blood.specific hormones for different emotional states. arousal-adrenaline. they imporve memoery, exciting story better recall.
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amygdala
part of the limbic system. crucial for emotional memories. when damaged- emotionall flat. no longer fear response. over sexed. direct contact to hypothalamus, gateway to hormones
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explain critical periods
children learn things easier than adults. crictal period begins when critical structures are in place. end when required structyre no longer possible. sime forms of learning are long lasting. FL-20's
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brain injury
from stroke neuron dealth by lack of p2. blocked vessel or drowning. inital symptoms worse than final oucome. recovery possible. widespread symptoms, lack of input or areas connected to damaged. training=form new connections
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what can children not master?
complex abstract concepts, self control, time perceptopn and planning and consequences
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explain injury and rehabilitation
phineos gage major damage to frontal lobe. behavioural affects, little inpact on motor and iq, personality change anecdotal. later recovery of cognitive control. frontal love syndromw, impaired ability to maintain intentional goal directed behaviours
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what is cortical reorganisation after loss of input?
after amputation cortical area representing this part does not recieve input. synaptic connections wither awat, making room for nearby areas. phantom sensations-stimulation of body parts with adjacent cortical regions.
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explain ageing
loss of muscle mass, bone density. cortex, subcortical strutcures atrophy death of neurons. decline in physical fitness and motor skills. decrese mental flexibiliity, learning more difficult.
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explain environment and cortical neurons
enriched environment better developed cortical neurons. larger dendric branches.
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improving aging
education, active, stimulated brains, afford to loose some to those who remail physically and mentally fit. varied envroment. learn a lot. practice. active.
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