Biological aspects of neuroscience: Random 1

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  • Created by: CanveySam
  • Created on: 23-05-15 23:37
Lesions of ventral striatum?
behaviour e.g. OCD
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Subthalamic lesion?
Huntington's Chorea
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Lesion of primary motor cortex?
Hemiparesis
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Lesion of putamen?
slowness in movement
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Lesion of thalamus?
Ataxia (coordination)
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Lesion of cerebellum?
lack of motor control
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Lesion of substantial nigra?
Parkinson Disease
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Lesion of rostral/head of caudate?
working memory/strategy affected
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2 types of neocortex cells
Pyramidal (project, layer IV) and Stellate (local, layer III)
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3 types of fibres
Association (sâme hem), Projection (down), commissural (across hems)
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Brodman areas for: Motor, somatosensory, visual, brocas, auditory
4, 1/2/3, 17, 44/45, 22
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Main NTs of Basal Ganglia?
GABA, Dopamina, Serotonin, Glutamate
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Indirect pathway is more ... than direct pathway
Inhibitory
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What does the hypothalamus do?
Beneath thalamus and consists of nuclei specialised for body temp, hunger, endocrine etc
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Sagital section?
Vertical, eg medial,
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Limbic system?
Important for emotion/memory functions, relates to present and past environment
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Medulla? (Hindbrain)
Regulates vital functions
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Pons? (Hindbrain)
Key link between cerebrum and cerebellum
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Nerve communication is ....?
Electrical
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Synapse communication is ...?
Chemical (and electrical)
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Chemical synapse are ... (list 4/5 things)
Asymmetric, undirectional, synaptic cleft, slow, divergent
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Electrical synapses are: ... (list a few things)
Symmetrical, bidirectional, gap not cleft/permeate membrane, fast/no delay
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Mammalian neuron concentration: Inhib v Exci
K (140 v 5), Na (5-15 v 145),then Cl and Ca
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Bipolar cells?
central body and 2 processes e.g. sensory
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RGC - Ganglion?
retina
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Amacrine cells?
No axons! work laterally e.g. retina. small long mad dendrites
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Unipolar cells?
Rarer. Only 1 extension/process axon
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Purkinje cells?
Crazy dendrites! convergent. eg cerebellum; corordination
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what is the golgi complex?
system of neurons
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Dendrite?
Receive info from presynaptic neurone and transfer to soma
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What is saltatory conduction?
some axons covered by myelin; AP occurs at N of R and speeds up DEPOLARISATION
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Three different types of glial cells; what do glial cells do?
Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microcytes; provide structure/support to neurone
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Astrocytes?
(large thick starlike) provide nourishment, blood/brain barrier
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Oligodendrocytes?
Provide myeline (thin star like)
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Microcytes?
(small star) clean up from dead tissue and link to immune system
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what is an ion?
An atom with different number of protons and electrons
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what are the two rules ions distribute by?
Osmotic balance and Electrostatic gradient
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what is osmotic balance?
Ions spread uniformly
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What happens at resting potential?
Ion diet means that inside is much more negative (-70mV) than outside (0)
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Why is RP negative?
Different concentration of Na+, K+, Cl- and A-
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What two mechanisms does RP/neural comm depend on?
Sodium-potassium pump (Gated channel) and Permeable membrane (Non gated channel)
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What do gated channels do?
Force Na+ out e.g. 3 Na out only 1 K in.
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When do the non gated channels happen?
When axon is STIMULATED; axon becomes more permeable to Na and K so more freely so more Na enters and K leaves
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What is the name for what happens when the non gated channels open?
Depolarisation, as charge reduced back to 0mV.
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Describe points on bell curve to peak from -70 to +30 (membrane potential over time)
RP, depolarisation/membrane permeability, Na ion channels open/Na rushes in (and K), Na channels close
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Describe bell curve from peak back to RP
Na channels close, K moves out, K channels close, refractory period, RP
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Absolute refractory period v relative refractory period?
Absolute ref period - nothing happens v relative ref period where AP happens if stimulus is strong enough
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Why absolute refractory period?
So AP doesn't go backwards
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Points of AP
unidirectional, all or nothing firing, non-decremental, 100mV change/same form regardless of stimulus, active conduction
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Axon hillock?
If ex and inhib PSPs sum and overcome threshold at axon hillock and AP will occur
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excitatory PSP?
INCREASE in membrane permeability/graded/sum/stimula
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Frequency coding?
larger the stimulus, the more FREQUENT the firing of AP
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Where can synapse occur?
soma, dendrites or axons!
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Explain Vesicles/NTs
AP opens calcium channels, binds with protein in vesicles in presynmem, creates 'Omega figures', NT released into synaptic cleft
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Explain what happens when NTs are released?
NT binds with RECEPTOR of postsynmembrane (like "lock and key"), then NT is deactivated
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How is NT deactivated?
1) By re-activating pump (send NT back) 2) Break down by enzyme (Golgi system help)
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What might happen if NT NOT deactivated? e.g. drugs?
Overstimulation/interfere with facility of NT to bind
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How can drugs interfere with NTs?
1) synthesis of NT 2)storage in vesicles 3)release into synapse 4)unable to bind to receptors 5) prevent re-uptake 6) enzyme breakdown
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Dendrites (v axons)?
no myelin, graded, no refractory period, passive conduction, carry info TO hillock, grey matter
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What do NTs have in common with each other?
transported to axon terminal to store in vesicles, are moved or degraded after binding
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What is the effect of NTs binding with receptors?
permeability change of post synaptic membrane
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Explain process of Glutamate example
At RP, calcium needs to enter NMDA but can't as blocked by Mg. During depot, Na leaves AMPA recap and Mg leaves NMDA thus room for Calcium to enter
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What is Glutatemate implicated in?
Plasticity, memory etc.
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What is the point about glutamate and plasticity (and LPD)?
If this is repeated and strong enough then it will affect FUTURE response
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LTP - what is it?
Long term potentiation - e.g. increase in synaptic strength in hippo/consolodation of memory
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LTP works, how?
weak stim, weak resp; strong stim, strong reps; BUT now weak stim, STRONG response
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Implication of LTP
Cell perm inc for +ve ions then RP will become more +ve (excite pot), but if cell perm inc for -ve ions then RP will become more -ve (inhib pot).
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Inhib or excit potentials are ...?
Graded! Summation will determine if PSP is inhib or excite; if PSP overcomes threshold then AP will occur.
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Card 4

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Lesion of putamen?

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Card 5

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