Biological Aspects: Auditory system 1

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what is sound?
the alternation of compression and rarefaction of air
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What is a wavelength?
the distance between pressure peaks
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what is the frequency range that humans can detect?
20-20000 Hz
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Know map of ear!
Learn it :-)
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What does the cochlea do?
Tranduces sound waves into electrical potentials
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What do pressure waves do in the cochlea?
pressure waves initiate the motion of the basilar membrane and pass to the Organ of Corti
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what is a fundamental role of the basilar membrane?
Frequency selectivity
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How does frequency selectivity work on the bm?
Each part of the BM is more sensitive to a particular frequency (where it will vibrate more strongly)
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What is the Apex/top of the BM called?
Helicotrema
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Is the bottom of the BM narrow or wide?
narrow
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Does the bottom of the BM respond to high or low frequencies?
high
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The amplitude of a wave increases ... and decreases ...
increases slowly and decreases abruptly
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the amplitude of the wave determines the ... of the ...
determines the extent of the vibration
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loud sounds affect the ... portion of the BM, so ... ...
wider portion of the BM, so more NEURONS
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the ... determines WHERE the BM responds more ...
frequency determines where the BM responds more intensively
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the ... determines how WIDE the portion of the BM is that is responding
amplitude
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The ... .. ... sits on the BM
Organ of Corti
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Learn diagram of Organ of Corti etc
Learn!!
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what does the tectorial membrane do?
Shearing motion on the hair cells, change in potential (e.g. depolarisation) to auditory nerve
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what happens if stereocilia move TOWARDS the kinocilium?
Increase firing rate/Depolorization/excitatory effect
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what happens if stereocilia move AWAY from the kinocilium?
Decrease firing rate/Hyperpoloarization/INHIBITORY effect
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What is the kinocilium?
Stereocilia tip link/ion channel
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what are the steps of depolization of the hair cells?
Stereocilia move towards kinocilium, ion channel opens and positive ions enter (K+)
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What are the stereocilia like on the base of the BM?
short and rigid
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What are the stereocilia like at the apex of the BM?
large and floppy (lower frequency)
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What is the route from auditory nerve to BA 41/42?
Aud nerve; Medulla: cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex; Midbrain: Inferior col; Thalamus: Medial geniculate to BA 41/42
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Learn diagram of auditory pathway
Learn!!
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Auditory cortex is which BA numbers?
BA 41/42
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From medial geniculate to which layer of primary aud cortex?
IV
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From V layer aud cortex to where?
Medial geniculate nuclei
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From VI layer aud cortex to where?
Inferior colliculi
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The basal end is represented most ... in the AC
Medially
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The apical end is represented most ... in the AC
Laterally
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Primary AC is organised in ... columns
Perpendicular
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What 2 types of perpendicular columns are there?
summation and suppression columns
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Neurons in summation columns respond strongly to what?
To stimulation of either ear
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How do neurons in suppression columns respond?
they are excited by stimulation of one ear but inhibited by stimulation in another ear
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how are summation and suppression columns organised?
Alternatively - and are the basis of ear dominance
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what are auditory fovea?
important sound stimuli are overrepresented e.g. in humans, speech areas are overrepresented and lateralised
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Musical stimuli are overrepresented on which side?
Right
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What is the point of the descending pathway?
Not clear. Might modulate attention
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What is the descending pathway?
AC; V layer: med gen; VI layer: inf col; cochlear nucleus (olivary nucleus path) to outer hair cells
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Revise inner and outer hair cells
Look up!
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What do interarual TIME differences mean?
sound coming from the right will reach the right ear first
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What do inter aural LEVEL differences mean?
sound coming from the right is more INTENSE in the right ear
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What are deals with inter aural time differences and localisation?
MSO (Medial Superior Olive)
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Which areas contain cells sensitive to aural level differences (intensity)?
LSO (Lateral Superior Olive) and MNTB (Medial Nuclei of Trapezoid Body)
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Card 2

Front

What is a wavelength?

Back

the distance between pressure peaks

Card 3

Front

what is the frequency range that humans can detect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Know map of ear!

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the cochlea do?

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