Biological approach to gender (Genes and Hormones and the Evolutionary approach)

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1. What did Hines (1994) study?

  • Girls born with CAH (exposed to testosterone) showed little difference in gender to a control group of non CAH girls.
  • David Reimer
  • Batista family
  • 25 child-free women (found that those with higher testosterone had less maternal drive)
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2. What did Reiner and Gearheart (2004) study?

  • Bananas
  • Girls born with CAH (exposed to testosterone) showed little difference in gender to a control group of non CAH girls.
  • Chromosomal males born with no penis (found that of 14 raised female, half re-assigned themselves by puberty)
  • The Batista family

3. Give one A01 point that explains the evolutionary approach to gender development in terms of division of labour.

  • Division of labour made no impact on survival rates.
  • Division of labour developed to ensure survival in the EEA because if a woman was pregnant she would be physically unable to hunt- therefore the man would have to and different gender roles developed.
  • Division of labour did not exist in the EEA and was a more recent social idea that developed due to sexist beliefs.
  • Division of labour made no impact on survival rates - neanderthals survived despite division of labour not existing between them.

4. Who proposed the empathising-systemising theory due to the results of a study?

  • Baron-Cohen (2002)
  • Bunge et al (1999)
  • Borat (1998)
  • Deady et al (1967)

5. What is the tend and befriend theory?

  • Proposes that both genders use "tend and befriend" when under stress
  • Suggests that women are better with relationships and cope in an emotional way in stressful situations
  • Suggests that men are better with relationships and cope in an emotional way in stressful situations
  • Suggests men act more emotionally than women when under stress.

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