Biological approach to gender (Genes and Hormones and the Evolutionary approach)

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1. Give one A01 approach to the role of genes and hormones in gender development in females.

  • The absence of testosterone causes oestrogen to be produced and puberty to be triggered.
  • Quadagno found that female monkeys exposed to testosterone were more aggressive
  • Without the Y chromosome the testes do not develop and instead ovaries do, which produce oestrogen and stimulate puberty in females.
  • Testosterone triggers puberty in females.
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2. Who proposed the empathising-systemising theory due to the results of a study?

  • Deady et al (1967)
  • Bunge et al (1999)
  • Baron-Cohen (2002)
  • Borat (1998)

3. What is the tend and befriend theory?

  • Suggests men act more emotionally than women when under stress.
  • Suggests that men are better with relationships and cope in an emotional way in stressful situations
  • Suggests that women are better with relationships and cope in an emotional way in stressful situations
  • Proposes that both genders use "tend and befriend" when under stress

4. Give one A01 point that explains the evolutionary approach to gender development in terms of mate choice.

  • Men and women look for different qualities in a mate purely because men and women have different qualities anyway.
  • In the EEA men and women looked for different qualities and this carried through to today.
  • Men and women look for different qualities in a mate in order to have the most successful reproduction.
  • Men and women look for the same qualities in a mate.

5. Give one A01 approach to the role of genes and hormones in gender development in males.

  • Boys can be born with an extra X chromosome that can cause them to look and feel more feminine.
  • Boys can be born with an extra Y chromosome that causes them to look and feel more feminine.
  • David Reimer example
  • The Batista Family example

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