Biological approach PY1 flashcards.

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 31-03-14 21:08
1st assumption of Bio A?
There is a close link between the brain and behaviour. Thoughts and emotions are based on electrical messages which are carried around the brain by neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Level of chemicals can shape behaviour.
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1st assumption of Bio A example?
Low levels of serotonin can cause depressive behaviour.
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2nd assumption of Bio A?
Close link between genes and behaviour. The genes a person inherits from their parents will create a predisposition to behave in a certain way. E.g. schizophrenia may be shaped by DISC1 and G72 being abnormally structured.
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Selye's GAS?
Selye's 'General Adaptation Syndrome' describes his the body reacts to stressors. Selye throughout physiological responses to stress were universal (same for everyone) and general (same response whatever the stressor).
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What did Selye base his theory on?
He based his theory on observations of lab rats' responses to stressors such as extreme temperatures and injections of various drugs (morphine)
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How may stages has GAS got?
3 - alarm, resistance and exhaustion
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Describe alarm stage?
Stressor activated hypothalamus which triggers HPA axis and ANS. The ANS causes adrenaline production for 'fight or flight' response.
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Physiological reactions in alarm stage?
Increased breathing/heart rates and a release of sugars to generate energy. If stressor disappears body returns to normal.
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What is HPA axis short for?
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
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What is ANS short for?
Autonomic Nervous System.
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Describe resistance stage?
If stressor persists body continues producing adrenaline and cortisol. The PNS cuts in to adapt to stressor and body appears to cope. Elevated hormone levels take their toll and the bodes ability to resist diminishes.
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Physiological reactions to resistance stage?
Raised blood pressure, and sugars stored to conserve energy. HPA axis is now heavily involved in the first two stages as it governs the physiological response to stress.
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What is PNS stand or?
Parasympathetic Nervous System.
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Describe exhaustion stage?
If stressor persists and hormone levels remain high the body can no longer cope. Physiological reactions include damaged adrenal glands (due to over activity) and a weakened immune system.
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What happens as a result of physiological reaction at exhaustion stage.
Defences become less effective and stress related illnesses occur such as heart disease and ulcers. Selye's rats died at this stage.
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What does GAS suggest?
That stress is a biological response caused by changes in hormone levels.
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Chemotherapy, what is normal/abnormal?
Main assumption os Bio A is that there is a close link between brain chemicals and behaviour. Normal behavious occurs when brain chemicals are balanced, abnormal behaviour is due to an imbalance of chemicals.
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How does chemo link to Bio A?
Directly links to chemotherapy which aims to make abnormal behaviour normal by using drugs to enter the bloodstream in order to alter levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. Eg...
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Chemo NAAN example?
E.g. Anti depressants (prozac) raise levels of serotonin which will alter behaviour and lift the mood of the patient.
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How does chemo work? (first step)
Therapist will diagnose the patient on the basis of their symptoms using the DSM and ICD systems. E.g. suicidal thinking may lead to depression diagnosis. Hallucinations and delusions may lead to schizophrenia diagnosis.
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2ns step of chemo?
A course of drugs is prescribed. Some drugs work by preventing repute of chemicals in the brain thus raising level of certain neurotransmitters (all examples here)... The therapist informs the patient about dosage and possible side effects.
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What might some patients be given?
A placebo. This is to assess whether chemotherapy helps depression due to the chemicals in a drug such as prozac, or due to the belief that prozac will remove suicidal thoughts.
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What do SSRI's do?
SSRI's such as prozac work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin, thus improving mood in someone with depression.
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Other drugs bind to receptors, thus lowering level of chemicals. What drugs bind to receptors?
Chloropromazine is an anti-psychotic drug which works by binding to D2 receptors thus lowering the level of dopamine in someone with schizophrenia.
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Explain Beta-Blockers?
Anti-anxiety drugs such as Betablockers work by reducing the level of adrenaline in the body, thus lowering heart rate.
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Final chemo stage?
After a course of chemo, the patient returns to discuss whether the drug has altered their behavious- e.g. whether suicidal thoughts have gone away. The dosage may be changed, or a new drug introduced. Side effects would be discussed.
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Give an example of a side effect of certain chemo?
30% of people on anti-psychotics experience tar dive dyskineasis (involuntary spasms) as a side effect.
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Final stage of chemo, other things discussed?
The risk o addiction or dependency. When behaviour has improved and symptoms reduced chemo has been successful.
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Success rate of chemo?
Viguera (2000) reported that lithium was effective in treating bipolar disorder in over 60% of cases. The extreme levels of serotonin are treated using chemo which restores the balance of serotonin, thus reducing depressive and manic symptoms.
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Link paragraph for chemotherapy?
This illustrates how the assumptions of Bio A have been successfully applied to chemotherapy to treat abnormal behaviour.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


1st assumption of Bio A example?


Low levels of serotonin can cause depressive behaviour.

Card 3


2nd assumption of Bio A?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Selye's GAS?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Selye base his theory on?


Preview of the front of card 5
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