Biological approach

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What percentage of genes do monozygotic twins share?
100% of DNA
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What percentage of genes do dizygotic twins share?
50% of DNA
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What does 'Concordance rate' mean?
The likelihood that if one sibling has a certain characteristic/trait the other will too
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What were the results of McGuffins concordance rate of depression in MZ and DZ twins
MZ = 46% DZ = 20%
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Conclusion of McGuffin's findings
Depression is strongly genetic/Effect of genes is stronger than environmetal factors
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Limitation of McGuffin's study
It isn't purely genetic (only 46%) environment has some influence
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Findings of Heston's schizophrenia study
10.6% of adults whose mother had schizophrenia were hospitalised themselves - Biological influence
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Serotonin
Regulates learning, mood and sleep
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Dopamine
Helps control the brains reward and pleasure centres - makes you feel happy
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People with depression have lower levels of what?
Serotonin
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People with schizophrenia have higher levels of what?
Dopamine
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Limitation of depression and schizophrenia evidence?
Can't apply cause and effect - Don't know what caused what
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What did Glazer et al find?
People with schizophrenia had enlarged ventricles
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2 strengths of the biological approach to psychopathology
A lot of research to support the approach and enhance our understanding/Suggests that behaviour is out of our control, therefore allowing a sympathetic response (providing support not punishment)
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2 weaknesses of the biological approach to psychopathology
Can't apply cause and effect to much of the research/Difficult to know what are the effects of genes and what are the effects of environment
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List the five drugs used in drug treatments for biological therapies
1. Antidepressants 2. Mood stabilisers 3. Antipsychotics 4. Anxiolytics 5. Stimulants
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What disorders would you use 'antidepressants' for?
Depression/Anxiety/Eating disorders
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What disorder would you use 'mood stabilisers' for?
Bipolar
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What disorders would you use 'anxiolytics' for?
Anxiety disorders such as - Phobias, OCD, PTSD
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What is OCD and PTSD
Obessive-complusive disorder/Post-traumatic stress disorder
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What disorder would you use 'stimulants' for?
ADHD, Narcolepsy
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What were the findings of Arroll et al's meta analysis
60% of patients given antidepressants improved/45% of patients given a placebo improved
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Conclusion of Arroll's results
Placebo drug worked in some cases but antidepressants was more effective
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Strength of Arroll's study
Supports bio approach because once chemical embalance is restored and symptoms reduce
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2 risks associated with drug treatments
1. Can become addicted/dependant 2. Short term solution (symptoms may come back)
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Side effects of drug treatments (list four)
Nausea, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, involuntary movements
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Why might psychological therapy be seen as better than drug treatments?
Drug treatments don't work to treat the cause of disorder
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What is the procedure of ECT?
1. Electric shock to head for fraction of second 2. Seizure lasts 15-60 seconds 3. One side of head (instead of bilateral) to avoid memory loss 4. Generally repeated 6-12 times 2-3 times per week
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What was Eranti et al ECT study?
46 majorly depressed patients assigned to ECT
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Eranti et al findings
59% of ECT patients went into remission/17% of control group experienced remission/At 6 month follow up most had major depression again
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2 ethical issues in use of ECT
Side effects (specifically memory loss)/Ability to give informed consent (patients with severe depression may not have the capability to fully understand what it involves
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Card 2

Front

What percentage of genes do dizygotic twins share?

Back

50% of DNA

Card 3

Front

What does 'Concordance rate' mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the results of McGuffins concordance rate of depression in MZ and DZ twins

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Conclusion of McGuffin's findings

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