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Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulator
Demonstrates cause and effect.
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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Somatic: processes and interacts with our external environment
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Autonomic
Processes and interacts with out internal environment.
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Efferent nerves
Carry motor signals from CNS to muscles.
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Afferent nerves
Carry sensory signals from external environment to CNS.
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Sympathetic Efferent Nerves
Synapse (connect) onto neurons far away from target organ.
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Parasympathetic Efferent Nerves
Synapse onto neurons close to target organ.
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Principles of S/P Nerves
S nerves energise in threatening situations, whereas P nerves act to conserve energy.
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S/P Nerves
Autonomic targets are controlled by different levels of S & P nerve activity.
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S/P Nerves
S changes cause psychological arousal, whereas P changes cause relaxation.
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How do Nerves work?
Neurons are fundamental unit of the nervous system; cells that are specialised for the reception, conduction, & transmission of electrochemical signals.
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Cell Membrane
Only allows certain molecules into the cell.
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Cell Membrane
This semipermeability is critical to normal activity of neuron with some molecules/ions being allowed into cell whereas other molecules bind to the cell & semd signals within the cell body.
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Cell Body (soma)
the metabolic centre of cell. The soma also contains nucleus of neuron, whcih contains cell's DNA.
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Dendrites
Processes emanating from the cell body that receive info from synaptic contacts with other neurons.
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Axon
Projects away from cell body - may be as long as a metre.
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Axon Hillock
The junction between cell body & axon - a critical structure in the conveyance of electrical signals by neuron.
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Myelin Sheath
Insulate the axon and assist in its conduction of electrical signals.
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Terminal Buttons
The branch endings of the axon that release chemicals that allow the neuron to communicate with other cells.
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Synapse
Point of communication between the neuron and other cells (neurons, muscle fibres).
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Myelecephalon (medulla oblongata)
Composed of major efferent/afferent tracts that send signals between rest of brain and body.
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Myelecephalon
Involved in sleep, attention, muscle tone, cardiac function, respirations.
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Myelecephalon
Key part is network of nuclei called reticular formation.
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CNS: Myelin-providing glia
Oligodendrocytes
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CNS: Clusters of cell bodies
Nuclei
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CNS: Bundles of axons
Tracts
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PNS: Myelin-providing glia
Schwann cells
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PNS: Clusters of cell bodies
Ganglia
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PNS: Bundles of axons
Nerves
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Metencephalon
Cerebellum (little brain) --> damage to this eliminates the ability to control movements.
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Metencephalon
Pons (bridge) --> swelling on the brain stem that is important for postural reflexes.
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Mesencephalon
Tectum (roof) --> consists of colliculi (small hills). Superior colliculi = visual function/Inferior colliculi = auditory function.
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Mesencephalon
Tegmentum is inferior to tectum and contains red nucleus (sensorimotor function), substantia nigra (sensorimotor function), periaqueductal gray (pain relief function).
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Anterior
Front
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Posterior
Back
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Superior Dorsal
Top
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Inferior Ventral
Bottom
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Diencephalon
Thalamus located at top of brain stem --> comprised of different nuclei, most project to cortex.
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Thalamus
Some thalamic nuclei are sensory relay nuclei --> cells that receive signals from sensory receptors and transmit them to sensory cortex
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Diencephalon: Hypothalamus
located below Thalamus.
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Hypothalamus
pituarity gland (snot gland) is suspended from hypothalamus. They play key roles in endocrine (hormone release) function.
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Telencephalon
Known as cerebral hemispheres
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Telecephalon
Initiates voluntary movement, interprets our sensory world, mediates all complex psychological processes we have such as language, thought, emotions.
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Telecephalon
Characterised by layer of tissue called cortex (bark) which has many convolutions referred to as gyri (peaks), fissures (deep valleys) and sulci (small valleys) --> increase surface area.
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Telecephalon
Large tracts called commissures connect 2 hemispheres - corpus callosum is largest.
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Telecephalon
4 lobes of cerebral hemispheres defined by fissures of cerebral cortex.
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Frontal lobe
Reasoning/movement --> superior to lateral fissure and anterior to central fissure.
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Temporal lobe
hearing/memory --> inferior to lateral fissure.
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Parietal lobe
Sensory/motor/attention --> posterior to central fissure.
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Occipital lobe
Vision --> posterior to temportal lobe/parietal lobe.
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Exteroceptive Senses
ES organs detect changes in external environment and send info t the brain.
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Five Senses
Vision, Audition, Somatosensation, Gustation, Olfaction
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Traditional Hierarchal sensory System Model
Input flows from sensory receptors to thalamus, then to primary sensory cortex, secondary cortex, and finally association cortex.
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Sensory Receptors
Are cells that respond to particular stimuli in the environment and initiate sensory transduction
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Sensory Receptors: 5 Major Groups
Chemoreceptors (pH, organic molecules), Mechanoreceptors (vibration, sound, acceleration), Photoreceptors (light), Thermoreceptors (temperature), Nocireceptors (skin).
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Primary Sensory Cortex
Receives direct input from thalamic sensory relay nuclei.
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Seconday Sensory Cortex
Recieves input primarily from primary cortex.
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Association Cortex
Receives integrates sensory info sometimes from multiple sources.
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Traditional Hierarchical Sensory System Model
Major feature is serial with hierarchal organisation
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Hierarchical
Sensory info flows through brain structures in order of increasing neuroanatomical complexity.
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Hierarchical
Sensation less complex than perception.
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Sensation
Real
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Perception
Interpretation
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Perceptual Illusions
Give clues about perceptual processes going on in brain (e.g. motion bounce illusion).
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Neuropsychological Deficits
E.g. category-specific agnosia.
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Current Model of Sensory System Organisation: Parallel
Sensory systems are organised so info flows between different structures simultaneously along multiple pathways.
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Current Model of SS Organisation: Functionally Segregated
SS are organised so different parts of various structures specialise in different types of analysis.
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Current Model of SS Organisation: Hierarchical
Info flows through brain structutres in order of their increasing neuroanatomical functional complexity.
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Impaired visual perception: Scotomas
Areas of blindness in corresponding areas of visual field --> (Humphrey, 2006, - some brain damages patients still respond to stimuli, like being able to say direction of object).
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Blind-sight
Parallel models rather than serial needed to explain perceptual phenonmen.
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Organisation of Secondary Visual Cortex & Association Cortices: Ventral Stream
Info flows from primary visual cortex through ventral secondary cortex to association cortex in inferior temporal region.
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Dorsal System
Believed to be involved in perception of where object is
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Ventral System
Believed to be involved in recognition of object.
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Evidence: Ganel et al (2008)
Where deficit --> posterior parietal damage have difficulty reaching accurately/What deficit --> damge to inferior temporal cortex have difficulty describing objects.
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Ear
Sound waves travel down auditory canal and cause tympanic membrane to vibrate.
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Ear
Vibration is transmitted to ossicles & onto membrance called oval window which transfers it into fluid of cochlea,
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Auditory Cortex
Each cochlea has input to each cortex.
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Primary Auditory Cortex
First area within temporal lobes of brain responsible for processing acoustic info.
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Auditory Cortex
Tonotopically organised --> different areas respond to specific frequencies.
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Auditory Cortex Damage
Lesions dont cause deafness (Cavanito et al, 2012). Humans with extensive damage often have difficulty localising stimuli/recognising complex sequences of sounds.
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Somoatosensation: 3 separate/interacting systems
Exteroceptive (external stimuli), Proprioceptive (Body position), Interoceptive (Body conditions).
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Exteroceptive
Touch (mechanical stimuli), Temperature (thermal stimuli), Pain (nociceptive stimuli) --> Specialised recpetors respond to various types of stimuli, no change = no sensation.
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Thalamic nuclei receiving somatosensory info project to...
Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) & Secondary somatosensory cortex in posterior parietal cortex (SII)
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Primary somatosensory cortex
Organised somatotopically. Known as homunculus.
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PSC
Are of cortex allocated to each part of body in proportion to how sensitive it is.
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Somatosensory Agnosias
Produced by large lesions to parietal cortex.
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Astereognosia
Loss of ability to recognise objects by touch in absence of defects in somatosensation (Gertsmann, 2001).
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Asomatognosia
Loss of ability to recognise parts of own body (Dieguez et al, 2007).
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Autotopagnosia
Loss of ability to recognise parts on own body or other people's bodies (Goldenberg, 2000)
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Perception-action coupling
An influential theory in biopsy, suggesting that perception & action are functionally entwined; perception is means to action, & action a means to perception (Sperry, 1952).
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Association Cortex
The boss and issues general commands
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Motor areas
Generate motor commands and muscles (contraction, relaxation) carry out orders.
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Advantage of hierarchical
Higher levels are left free to focus on complex functions while lower levels focus on details.
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Sensorimotor System
Carefully monitors external world and consequences of own actions.
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What if we lost feedback?
Ian Waterman had sensory deafferentation and every action had to be planned.
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New born
Lift heads a little, watch objects for short period of time, move away from uncomfortable sensations.
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3mnths
Prop themselves up whilst laying on stomachs, recognise bottle, smile, control hands/feet, track moving objects.
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9mnths
Sit alone, say simple words, crawl, respond to familiar faces/names.
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15mnths
Walk with support, feed themselves, speak, drink from cup, learn new words
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24mnths
Walk without support, run, climb, role-play, draw, understand instructions.
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3yrs
Act like a mini adult.
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Posterior Parietal Association Cortex
Plays important role in function of position and location by integrating these two kinds of info
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PPAC
Recieves input from visual, auditory, somatosensory systems
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Damage to PPAC
Present movement deficits known as apraxia/contralateral neglect.
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Apraxia
Inability to perfrom movements requested.
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Contralateral Neglect
Fail to respond to visual/auditoty/touch stimuli from opposite half of body to where brain lesion occurs.
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Secondary Motor Cortex
Premotor cortex, Supplementary motor area & Cingulate motor areas --> all send info to primary motor cortex, receive input from PMC and have axons that connect to motor circuits of brainstem.
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Role of Secondary Motor Cortex
All activated both before/during voluntary movements, involved in planning/initation of movements.
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Primary Motor Cortex
Precentral gyrus of frontal lobe (somatotopically organised.
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PMC
Motor homunculus has disproportionate representation of hands/mouth; 2 areas that are capable of intricate movements.
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Role of PMC
Feedback from muscles/receptors allows sensorimotor system to intricately control movement/react to changes in external environment.
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Cerebellum
10% of brain mass but contains over half the brain's neurons, its organised systematically in lobes. Receives input from PMC/SMC/Brainstem motor nuclei/Somatosensory Systems.
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Cerebellum
Corrects any deviations from intended movement.
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Cerebellum Damage
Loss of ability to precisely control movement, maintain steady posture, exhibit good locomotion, balance, speak clearly, control eye movement.
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Basal Ganglia
Part of a loop that receives info from various parts of cortex & transmits it back to motor cortices via thalamus.
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Basal Ganglia
Involved in sequencing of movements. Compromised in those who have Parkinson's Disease/Huntington's Disease.
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Mirror Neurons - Rizzolatti et al (1996)
Found when monkeys observes actions of others, same area of brain was activated as when they made actions themselves.
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Imitation
Respond only to purposeful actions.
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Empathy
Mirror neurons may be co-copted by other regions of brain to support empathy (Carr et al, 2003).
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Empathy: Locoboni et al (2009) - Observation vs Imitation
Found increased mirro neuron activity in premotor cortex, limbic brain areas such as amygdala/insula.
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Locoboni: Evidence
Suggested that there is a second step after action is understood where info is relayed to emotional areas.
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Recognising Faces: Haxby et al (2000)
Division into core system (face specialised) & extended system (face-related, but more general functions)
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Occipital Face Area (OFA)
Located in inferior occipital gyrus and activated when you see a face.
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OFA: Rotshtein et al (2005)
Found the OFA was activated for pics of faces were physically similar but not when category of face changed.
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Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
Responds to upright faces more than other kinds of visual stimuli (Kanwisher et al, 1997).
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FFA
fMRI shows FFA responds when same face is repeated even if different images of face are used (Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006).
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FFA
Supports the idea that FFA is region of brain that allows us to identidy a specific person.
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Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS)
According to Haxby, STS responds to changeable aspects of face in contrast to FFA which responds to stable of face.
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STS Support
Judging gaze direction activated STS not FFA, but judgeing face identity activates FFA not STS (Hoffman & Haxby, 2000)
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Recognising Expressions
Impairments in recognising expressions are not linked to STS (predicted by Haxby) but are found in lesions to Haxby's extended system.
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Haxby's Extended System
Selective lesions to amygdala (fear) and insula (disgust), Leasions to orbitofrontal cortex (linked to emotional experience), Evidence that sensorimotor regions of brain involved in simulation are important for recognising expressions.
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Simulation in recognising expressions evidence
Electromygraphic measurement in facial muscles showed changes when watching expressions of other people (Dimberg et al, 2000)/Lesions of somatosensory & Broca's area impair recognition (Adolphs et al, 2000)
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Familiar faces
Produce emotional response (Tranel et al, 1985) but in Capgras patients can identify someone without feeling emotional reaction --> separate (dissociable) mechanisms.
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Haxby Model Weakness :(
Doesn't account for role of simulation in expression recognition.
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Haxby Model Weakness :(
Status of STS is uncertain in expression recognition (but important for gaze).
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Haxby Model Weakness :(
Emotion & identity not completely separate.
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