Biological Treatments for Sz

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  • Created by: ceschulze
  • Created on: 14-04-16 07:11
What are biological treatments for SZ?
Any form of treatment focused on producing changes in the brain. Antipsychotics (Conventional & Atypical) & ECT
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Give one example of one conventional antipsychotic drug
Chlorpromazine
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Conventional antipsychotic primarily combat which symptoms?
Positive symptoms of sz such as Hallucinations
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Give an example of one atypical antipsychotic drug
Clozapine
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How do conventional antipsychotic drugs work?
Reduce the effects of dopamine and so reduce the symptoms of Sz. Conventional antipsychotics are dopamine antaganists in that they bind to dopamine receptors (esp D2 receptors) but do not stimulate them, thus blocking the action
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How do conventional atypical drugs work?
Also act on dopamine, but are though to block serotonin receptors in the brain too.
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What does ECT stand for?
Electroconvulsive therapy
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How is the electric administered in ECT?
An electric current is passed between the scalp electrodes to create a seizure. An electrode is placed above the temple of the non-dominant side of the brain, and a second in the middle of the forehead (unilateral ECT).
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How is the patient protected from pain during ECT?
They are given a barbiturate, so they are unconscious when the electric shock is given. they are also given a nerve-blocking agent which paralyses the muslces of the body to prevent them contracting during treatment.
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How long does the electric shock and seizure last in ECT?
The electric shock lasts half a second and the seizure lasts up to one minute
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How many treatments does a patient need to treat SZ?
3 to 15 treatments
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When evaluating biololgical treatments for SZ what two words must the evaluation be focused on?
Appropriateness & effectiveness
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What would you discuss when evaluate the effectiveness of conventional antipsychotics?
Relapse rates of those on medication with those on a placebo - E.g Davis et al
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What would you discuss when evaluating the appropriateness of conventional antipsychotics?
Tardive Dyskinesia & motivational deficits (Ross & Read) e.g the notion that being prescribed medication reinforces the view that ther eis something wrong with them.
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How would you evaluate the effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics?
Atypical vs conventional - Leucht et al meta anlaysis of studies identified atypical drugs were only moderately superior to conventional drugs
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How would you evaluate the effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics?
effectiveness with negative symptoms - this claim only has marginal support. In Leucht et al study only two of the a typical drugs were slightly more effective than conventional drugs.
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How could you evaluate the appropriateness of atypical drugs?
Lower likelihood of tardive dyskinesia & fewer side effects
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how would you evaluate the effectiveness of ECT
Study comparing ECT with stimulated ECT - ECT produced results that were no different or worse than antipsychotic medication.
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How appropriate is ECT?
As there are significant risks associated with ECT the use of the treatment has decined in the uk. the decline between 1979 and 1999 was 59% (Read 2004)
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Card 2

Front

Give one example of one conventional antipsychotic drug

Back

Chlorpromazine

Card 3

Front

Conventional antipsychotic primarily combat which symptoms?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Give an example of one atypical antipsychotic drug

Back

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Card 5

Front

How do conventional antipsychotic drugs work?

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