Biological term 2

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  • Created by: Sophie153
  • Created on: 02-02-16 17:06
what is inattentional bias?
Attention seems to be necessary for conscious perception, further processing, and understanding…
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what is Change Blindness?
- Blanks between the pictures remove the transients that usually draw attention to changes
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what does changing location mean in Change Detection Paradigm
This is meant to vary the likelihood of the change being in a more attended area Central interest = more attention, - Changes are hard to detect without visual transients
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Do we see everything in front of us?
When you are concentrating on one thing, you may completely miss something else even if your eyes are fixating on it Such limits on our perceptual abilities can have both fun/fascinating effects(e.g. magic), devastating consequences (e.g. car acc
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what is first filter theory of attention?
the brain is a limited capacity information processor (Donald Broadbent) sensory processing to attentional filter to higher-level processing
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what is reportable of an unattended message?
gender,speech/non-speech, & other superficial features, no info about the meeting is reportable
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what is the selection process?
cochlea-Sensory analysis- memory/recognition-higher-level processing
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Where is the attention filter accodiring to early and late selection?
early between sensory analysis and memory/recognition and late selection between memory/recognition and higher-level processing
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what did late selections show?
very salient information such as person’s name may be noticed even in an unattended channel. when shadowing a meaningful message in one ear, they would switch to shadowing the other ear if the meaningful content moved there.some semantic info gets th
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what is Treisman’s Attenuation Theory?
proposed that unshadowed message is attenuated rather than filtered out Attenuation is like turning down the volume Still available for some semantic analysis Consistent with a wider range of the data
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what is the fronto-parietal control network?
Superior/Middle Frontal Gyrus,Inferior Parietal Lobe, Superior Temporal Gyrus. A large network of frontal and parietal areas are involved in orienting attention These areas presumably interact with sensory representations to modulate their activity.
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what is Spotlight of Attention?
Attention moves around like a spotlight and items within the spotlight go on to further processing The location of the spotlight may be guided voluntarily or reflexively in response to events.
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what is a parallel/pop-out search?
Unique feature(s) in targetare unique to target. No distractors (non-targets) have these features and don't influence search. Target could be detected just by checking whether features are present at all. Attention immediately goes to them
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what is a Conjunction/Serial Search?
Target shares features with distractors Target cannot be detected by presence/absence of one feature Must detect combination of features Must attend each location individual to check for conjunction of features
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what is a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) Task?
Rapid presentation of information in time has also been used to study how attention affects consciousness The spotlight of attention can cause an attentional blink in time. subject less likely to detect 2nd target with short lag as attentional blinks
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what is attentional blink?
all resources are dedicated to the first stimulus, At long lags, processing of the first stimulus is done The system is ready to start working on another stimulus. While processing from one stimulus is occurring, subsequent stimuli may be missed
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what is the neglect syndrome?
Inattention to contralesional (i.e., opposite the brain lesion) side of space or spatial reference frame Not a primary sensory disorder. Generally intact perception and may affect multiple senses simultaneously Anosagnosia/Somatoparaphrenia. Limit
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about neglect syndrome and inattention bias?
No primary sensory explanationCan occur across multiple senses simultaneouslyCan get info from left space when attention is directedNeglect can happen in a few frames of referenceNot an impairment in memory/representationUnconscious processing of neg
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Whatsthe neuroanatomy of neglect syndrome?
Neglect often associated with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke,can also arise from frontal and subcortical structures, Often right hemisphere but can also occur with left,Often involves peri-sylvian areas in parietal lobe & superior temporal lobe,
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what happens when patient asked to report all shops around the plaza?
only report ones on the right hand side
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what is perception without awareness?
ask what house they'd prefer, fire on left side of one. ask p where prefer to live, say bottom one even though couldn't see it, shoes processed meaningfully but at what level?
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what is the neglect theory?
Right hemisphere no longer competes against left Disinhibition of left hemisphere Hyper-attention to the right side of space by intact left hemisphere
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what is a normal brain like?
Hemispheres orient attention contralaterally Left hemisphere has stronger orienting power Hemispheres counteract/inhibit one another to compete for direction of attention
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what did disturbing attention show?
Parietal cortex stimulation significantly reduces ability to detect targets on the far left
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what is the spatial metaphor?
Memory is a container,Put items in,Capacity is limited Passive container?Does putting them in the container distort?
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what is memory metaphor for process of memory?
Encoding/Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval
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whats sensory memory about?
ask participants to report a grid of 15 letters can repeat 3/4, ask them to report a row can repeat all of it, suggests entire stimulus was stored but deceased before could report it all
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what is short term memory?
A temporary storage place for information, Participants shown 3 consonant trigram KHD After 30 secs could recall it perfectly But problems if Participants do tasks during retention phase Example: count backwards by 3’s, Suggests loss from STS =DECAY
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what is working memory?
A limited capacity system for temporary activation of and manipulation of information for complex tasks (e.g. comprehension, reasoning, etc. activates rather than storage
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what as working memory replaced Superior temporal sulcus with?
Visuospatial Sketchpad,Central Executive,Articulatory Loop
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what does central executive do?
at top of hierarchy allocates attention to inputs directs operation of other components has a strictly limited capacity,very flexible system processes info in any sensory modality stores info for brief periods
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what does Articulatory/Phonological Loop do?
verbal rehearsal loop use it for a phone no holds words when we speak aloud organises info in a serial and temporal fashion deals with verbal info in terms of its articulation
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what does Visuo-spatial Sketchpad do?
Stores visual and spatial information handles more than one stimulus at once rehearses material visual and/or spatial info not phonemic
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what is prediction on dual task studies?
Tasks Use Same Component = Impairment Tasks Use Different Comps = No Impairment
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what do neurons do in working memory?
Pre-frontal cortex may activate other parts of the brain related to the items in working memory
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what is chunking?
putting things together into larger units can reduce the memory load
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What happens with rehearsal and primacy effect?
asks subjects to rehearse words outloud more rehearsals for early words that are remembered better
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what is recency effect?
words at end out list remembered better as in STM (7 +/-2), disappears if delay in recall
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What is dissociating long?
normal digit span of remembering 5-8, patient 2. reduced recency in serial position curve. normal long-term memory as primacy effect intact. can report contents of short story better than normal subjects.
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where is activated retrieving from long-term memory?
hippocampus
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where is activated retrieving from working memory?
perirhianal cortex (recency effect)
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what is Anterograde Amnesia?
Problems with making new memories Old memories remain intact H.M. the most famous case…Clive also Clear issues with explicit memory Unable to describe recent events or remember new people
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what happened to HM in mirror tracing task
H.M.’s performance improves despite no explicit memory of having done the task before! Selective impairment of explicit memory…preserved “procedural” memory
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what is selective dementia?
progressive loss of semantic knowledge patient does not know what certain objects are can see the form of objects preserved episodic memories involving it!! doesn’t know identity...
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what is memory trace?
physical record of memories in brain
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what is maintenance rehearsal?
just keep rehearsing it over and over, this keeps it in working memory for a while , not very effective at transferring it to LTM
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what is elaborative rehearsal?
think about item continually, relate it to things that are already known
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what are two types of amnesia?
retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia 'soap amnesia'
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what is the learning phase in experiment?
Participants see examples of indoor and outdoor scenes Judge whether indoor or outdoor scenes
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what happened in the test phase?
Unexpected memory test Both old and new pictures, Judge whether they had seen pictures
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What did they find in FMRI in learning phase?
Higher activity in certain areas for remembered pics in frontal cortex and parahippocampal, Suggests extra processes required for LTM encoding
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what is levels of processing theory (LOP)?
Craik & Lockhart (1972) Two lists of words read one and count the number of letters in the word (shallow processing) Other list – read and imagine the objects in the list (deep processing) After delay, try remember the words Memory better deep proc
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what are results for processing on three levels?
Shallow: 15% memory for the words Deeper: 47% memory Deepest: 81% remembered
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what were three type of questions in their experiment?
Three types of questions Shallow: Is the word printed in capital letters? Deeper: Does the word ryhme with train? (sound) Deepest: Does the word fit into the sentence (meaning)
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What did they do in Frase and Schwartz study and what condition was best?
3 sections of booklet You generate & ask questions, Partner asks you questions, Study alone. performance best if you generate and answer questions
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what did Bower and Winzenz do?
view 15 noun pairs 2 forms of memorization verbal repetition (e.g. “dog cat, dog cat, ….”) imagine the two objects interacting e.g. imagine dog chasing a cat More than 2 times better at remembering words that were imagined
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what is the self reference effect?
a tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to remember information when it is related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be improv
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How is self reference effect used in a experiment?
use craik and tuvling task?e.g. is the word long-beautiful. two types of Q's: non self referencing-does the word describe the UK? or self referencing-does the word describe you? remembered 3x more if it was self referencing as p's processed it deeper
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what is multiple trace theory?
Making connections with other information gives us multiple memory traces, Multiple ways to retrieve the word
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what did bower show?
if you show people organised or unorganised information, organised information was remembered 3.5 x more
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what is retrieval?
have to try get it out, memory performance is affected by conditions have to try retrieve it
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how did they study effect of retrieval cues?
sue 600 nouns and have to generate 3 words associated with each noun,2nd condition someones created them for you. when given associated word, p's who generated own words remembered more. control condition given 2nd condition associate word,rarely rig
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what is appropriate processing?
Acquisition Task: Does target word fit into the sentence based on its meaning? - Semantic Processing Condition = Deep Processing Acquisition Task: Does target word rhyme when placed in sentence? Rhyme Processing Condition = Shallow Processing
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continued, what happened when given a rhyme memory test?
Present Word… “joy”. Does it rhyme with any of the target words that were seen during acquisition? LOP Theory predicts better performance for the deep-processing (semantic) condition 33% correct for deep-processing/semantic 49% correct for shallow/
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what is context reinstatement?shown by Goddon and Baddly
one group of divers learnt the list on land the other group underwater. each group tested in both. recalled better in location learnt it.
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what is state dependant learning?
Good/Bad mood alchohol vs. none marijuana vs. regular cigarette
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what i encoding specificity?
information is stored in a way that is linked with the thoughts and understanding of the learner
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what is an experiment to show encoding specificity?
Learn target words presented in 2 different contexts “The man lifted the piano” – context focuses on weight of piano “The man tuned the piano” – context focuses on sound of piano Later recall…give hint + ask them to recall word Hint “something heavy
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what is flashbulb memory?
People tend to have highly vivid and detailed memories of major events, memories of most events aren't so strong, do high emotions and shock trigger a special memory mechanism to encode these episodes?
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what happened in experiment to show flashbulb memory?
people emotionally charged pictures (pleasant pictures of people or lethal violence) and neutral pics measure brain activity using PET emotional pictures cause greater amygdala activity, greatest activation = greatest memory
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what happens if have damaged amygalda?
view slide show in which a boy gets horribly injured normal participants show enhanced memory for emotional slides B.P. shows no enhanced memory for emotional slides
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what is Narrative Rehearsal Hypothesis?
special events like 9/11 are talked about and thought about often pictures constantly replayed on TV all of this rehearsal leads to better memory
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what did Talarico & Rubin do?
Study began 12 Sep 2001 asked college students questions When did you hear about the attack?, etc. Also asked about everyday events Retested 1 week later, 6 weeks later, or 32 weeks later. found remembered lots of things well, not just flashbulb
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what happened in Talarico & Rubins experiment when measured confidence in flashbulb memory compared to everyday memory?
over time, got a lot more confident over flashbulb memory than everyday memories
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do we construct memory?what does Bartletts war of Ghost story we show?
story from Canadian Indian folklore people read the story and come back to recall it at various lags from the original reading people tend to remember the story in terms of their own cultural biases. e.g. boats instead of canoes
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what are schemas?
Subject sits in room waiting for experimenter Experimenter takes subject to other room.Asks subject to write down what was in the other room.Subjects can write down items in room. They also insert items that weren’t there but in normal office e.gpen
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what does schemas result in>
false memory
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what is the misinformation effect?
the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information
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what do Loftus et al misleading post event information (MPI) show?
show slides of a traffic accident, some p's hear an accurate description of the accident, others hear a bit of wrong information (MPI)- There was a yield sign at intersection not a stop sign. Memory test for picture: stop/yield sign.MPI picked yield
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what is loftus and palmers study on misinformation effect?
Loftus & Palmer (1974) view car crash slides asked a question (1) How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? (2) How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Results: smashed-41mph, hit-34mph
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what did their 2nd experiment show?
One week later: Did you see any broken glass on the ground? 32% of subjects who heard “smashed” say yes 14% of subjects who heard “hit” say yes There was no glass on the ground in the picture
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can you create false memories in p's? method
Experimenter contacts your parents and asks for real childhood stories Also makes up one story with realistic details from your past For instance, false story that you were lost in the mall as a child You need to write or describe your memory of
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what was the results?
started off 80% remembering correct events and no false events, by third interview remember true events same but also lots of people remembered this false event and will write about it
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how does this link to eye witness testimony?
In the U.S., 200 people per day become criminal defendants based on eyewitness reports, , 36/40 of the convictions were based on incorrect eyewitness testimony
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what does experimental evidence suggest?
Experimental evidence also suggests people are bad witnesses subjects shown 8-sec video clip of gunman Pick gunman from line-up (gunman is not actually in line-up) Every single participant picks someone with reasonable confidence
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what is effect of weapons on the scene?
remember subject better with no weapons, Weapons distract attention away from other details of the scene and thus those details don’t get encoded well.
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what did the experiment use familiarity to infer memory do?method
Experimental Condition: See video of male teacher reading to students.Control:See video of female teacher reading to students.Both groups see film of female teacher being robbed.Task:Pick robber from photospread,actual robbernothere,male teacher ther
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what were the results?
If male teacher was seen at beginning 60% of p's chose him as robber, if not 20% chose him. familiarity seemed to make the response, may not be associated with explicit memory of the person
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how can you measure familiarity vs recollection?
Measure brain activity during learning Then look at how this relates to later memory performance Familiarity and recollection seem to rely on different brain structures/systems
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what is language?
A system of communication with which we code and express feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences.
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what is linguistics?
Study the form of natural languages not necessarily concerned with the mechanisms that people use to produce and comprehend compare differences and similarities across different languages
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why is language productive?
an infinite number of combinations can be produced in any language from a finite set of elements (e.g. words, letters, phrases). Can be combined in recursive ways
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How does language have rules of form?
has a noun phrase e.g. The old dog and verb phrase is looking tired
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what are the building blocks of language?
sentence, phrase, word, morpheme, phoneme
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what is a phoneme?
basic sound elements e.g. bi=b/i/t
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what happens in different languages?
Not all possible phonemes appear in your language,explains why some sounds are difficult to hear/produce in a foreign language restrictions/patterns of combinations of phonemes within a language Toyota/Origami sound Japanese because of alternating
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how does rules of language help us?
spoken words are highly coarticulated We use context to disambiguate We use language rules to disambiguate e.g. English words can begin with “kr” but not with “rk”
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what is the Phonemic Restoration Effect?
Phonemic restoration effect is a perceptual phenomenon where under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be restored by the brain and may appear to be heard
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what is a morpheme?
Smallest significant unit of meaning in a word dogs = 2 morphemes: dog + s doghouse = 2 morphemes: dog + house
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what are content morphemes?
carry main burden of meaning (e.g. dog)
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what are function morphemes?
morphemes serve grammatical purposes (e.g. –s, is, and)
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what is functionally dissociable?
s
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how are building blocks used to to create language?
not all combinations are valid. Some valid combinations may not be meaningful. Language is more than syntax, it is governed by rules of grammar and syntax(Rules may differ slightly between languages but are consistent within a language)
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why does syntax need to be good?
Syntactic structure makes sentences easier to read/remember even without meaning.Ultimately we want to convey MEANING with structure and words
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what does Osterhaut (1997) do?
ERP Experiment Subjects here two different types of sentences Semantic Error Condition e.g. The cats won’t bake syntax fine…weird semantics Syntactic Error Condition e.g. The cats won’t eating semantics fine, improper syntax.
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what did they show?
higher brain waves when semantic error and and semantic error
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how do we store all the knowledge in the world? option 1
1: Store every instance of an object as a completely separate representation -Problems - Overwhelmed with too many different types - Knowledge about one type doesn’t help me interact with another type despite how similar they may be
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what is option 2?
Option 2: Store similar instances together as related in a category.- members of a category share some features - knowledge is generalizable to non-identical instances
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what is Aristotles definitional approach?
Category membership is specified by a set of necessary and sufficient conditions Chairs Sitable upon furniture. Triangles 3-lined figure, closed polygon
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whats the hierarchical structure in definitional approach?
A thing can be a member of many different categories at various levels of organization A node in the hierarchy must have all of the properties of its parent nodes in the hierarchy
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what are the problems with definitional approach?
An example – chairs – some possible properties sitable upon not sufficient…couches, tables, etc are sitable upon four legs not all chairs have four legs four legs & sitable upon? tables have these features and not all chairs have legs intended
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what does Wittgenstein (1953) say?
criticized the notion that categories can be defined by lists of necessary & sufficient conditions.Argued no such set of features exist.Proposed the idea of family resemblances.not all members of a family have the same sets of features.have different
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what is The Prototype Approach to Categorisation by Eleanor Rosch (1973)
determine whether something is a member of a category by comparing it to some best representation of the category. the prototype may have combinations of features from various members of the category. doesn't need to be real e.g. doggiest dog
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what is a prototype?
The prototype – central or ideal example of the category
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whats high/low prototypically?
High-prototypicality – closely resembles prototype Low-prototypicality – does not closely resemble prototype
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Rule-based vs. Instance-based
prototype theory uses comparisons to a particular instance of a category to determine membership instead of rules
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Binary vs. graded membership
definition-based theory – category membership is all-or-none prototype theory predicts graded levels of membership some members are closer to the prototype than others
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what did Rosch (1975) do?
Present subjects with a category title (e.g. bird) List 50 members of category Rate how well each member represents the category e.g. bat low, robin good
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what did Smith, et al. (1974) show?
Present sentences about category membership An apple is a fruit? – high prototypicality A pomegranate is a fruit– low prototypically. Prototypical Objects are named first & members affected by priming
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what is the Whorfian hypothesis?(linguistic relativity)
Are the ideas that you think constrained by the language you can use? OR Is thought separate from language?strong version: that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories
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what is the weak version?
linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour
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What is Categorical Perception in Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
it is easier to tell the difference between stimuli in different categories than within the same
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what did Ji, et al. (2000) show on Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Present words panda, monkey, and banana have subjects select the best pair Americans group taxonomically (e.g. panda and monkey) Chinese group relationally (e.g. monkey and banana)Bilinguals grouping depends on the language in which theyre tested
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Lateralization and Whorfian Hypothesis
if language is left-lateralized, it should affect color perception more in the right visual hemi-field than the left.
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lateralisation and handwriting
Lateralization Right-handed: 90% left hemisphere Left-handed: more bilateral or right-lateralized
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what is The Wada Test
to determine lateralization amobarbital to internal carotid artery anesthetize one hemisphere at a time
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what is aphasia?
break down of language due to a stroke...
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what is Brocas Aphasia?
non-fluent, language production problems
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what is Wernickes aphasia?
Fluent, Word salad, Trouble understanding language
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what is reasoning?
the cognitive processes by which one comes to conclusions that go beyond one’s current state of knowledge. Fact 1: School closes when at least 4 inches of snow falls Fact 2: It snowed 6 inches last night Product of Reasoning = Yay! No school today!
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what is deductive reasoning?
involves syllogisms (Aristotle) conclusion logically follows from two premises conclusion is definitely true if premises are true.Premise 1: School closes when 4 inches of snow falls Premise 2: It snowed 6 inches last night Conclusion: No school
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what is formative approach?
based on logic (branch of philosophy & math) How do we determine whether a syllogism is true?Valid syllogism, but conclusion may or may not be true depending on premises
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how is validity affected in normative approach?
Validity is determined by whether the conclusion follows logically from the two premises…i.e., on the FORM of the argument Validity does not depend on the content Truth of conclusion depends on truth of premises
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Do people think logically/normatively
Classic philosophy (normative approach) claims that humans are logical by nature and only make mistakes because of carelessness or lack of attention Modern psychologists, take issue with this claim
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what is Confirmation Bias?
If a conclusion is true or agrees with a person’s beliefs then it is more likely to be judged as valid
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what did Evans, et al. (1983) show?
Give people lists of syllogisms to judge as valid or invalid Validity judgment depends on whether conclusion is believable. This is a violation of principle 2: only syllogism form matters
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what is Wason Four Card Problem?
If there is a vowel on one side of a card, then there is an even number on the other side. Which cards do you need to flip in order to verify this? People perform much better on task related to real life than on the abstract task
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what did Cheng & Holyoak (1985) show?
propose that we have permission schemas that help us reason about the situation We reason a lot in daily life about if-then situations related to permission A problem that involves well-honed reasoning skills/strategies that have been practiced for
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continued...
for years. “If under 19 then no beer” is a well-rehearsed schema and leads to selection of the correct card
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what does induction show?
going from one or more specific cases to a more general conclusion aren’t necessarily true.Fact: Here in Canterbury, the sun has risen every morning Conclusion: The sun will rise in Canterbury tomorrow
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How do we determine the strength of these conclusions?
more observations=better, does it represent situation we have seen before?
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where do we use inductive reasoning?
Science we infer theories from experimental results,Daily life I’ve had good experiences selling things on Craigslist in the past
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What is a heuristic?
word comes from computer science a short cut method for getting a result NOT guaranteed to be correct but usually correct (or at least pretty good) and quick/efficient
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what is availability heuristic?
Which is more prevalent? Words that begin with “r” or have “r” as the third letter? 70% of p say more words begin with “r”, actually 3 times as many words have “r” 3rd. Words beginning with “r” are more available+We categorise words on 1st letter
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Representativeness Heuristic
pick prototype of person based on facts about them
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what did Tversky & Kahneman (1974) show?
Randomly pick one male from the U.S. population.He is Robert. He wears glasses, speaks quietly, and reads a lot. Is he a librarian or a farmer?people tend to say that he is a librarian.He is a representative of people’s concepts of librarians
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why was it not representative?
People made their choice against the odds In 1972, there were many more farmers than librarians, especially among males People ignored the base rate of the number of farmers vs. librarians in favor of the more specific information
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why would you ignore base rate?
see what look/sound like and use resemblance to indicate category member, or indicator of frequency
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what is Utility Theory?
making a choice in your best interests. Each decision has costs(move us further away) & benefits (move us closer)based on our personal goals .We decide by finding the course of action with the most favourable balance. estimate subjective utility
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what is a subjective utility?
the value of the course of action for a given person
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what will happen when people are faced with a decision, with framing (way word problems), the disease problem?
people show loss of aversion,try to avoid biggest lost
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what did Layoff (2004) show?
proposes that frames play a large role in making our decisions about political and moral issues. language that politicians use can evoke frames and affect our decisions on those issues.
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what are two different frames that Lakoff proposes for American politics/morals?
strict father model: the world is a dangerous place aways will be. always be winners & losers, absolute right & wrong. link between morality and disipline so poor/homeless must be immoral. protect/support family, teach right from wrong..
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what is other model?
Nurturant Parent Model:gender neutral – both parents raise child children are born good world can be a better place and we can make it that way must be empathetic toward child must be responsible raising a child is hard work & requires knowledge
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what is problem solving?
any present state (situation) that differs from a desired goal state, especially when moving to the goal state is blocked by an obstacle.
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what did Newell & Simon (1972) find?
people go through a problem space: imitate state, goal state, intermediate state, operators/transitions between states
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wha can you do to big problems?
break it down into subgoals e.g. in to each sub direction
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what did Newell and Simon (1972) do? -Tower of Hanoi problem
.How to solve?apply means-end analysis assess difference between current state and goal & reduce that differenceEstablishing and achieving the subgoals allows us to move toward the solution without needing to specify whole path through problem space
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what did Francis Galton (1822-1911) do?
Statistician, explorer, medical student, meteorologist, Hereditary Genius (1869)His own measurements: Head size Tone discrimination Height Strength of grip Visual acuity Lung capacity
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what id Charles Spearman (1863-1945) do?
Former military man, studied under Wundt Key contributions: Factor analysis Sensory discrimination as the foundation for higher cognition. the general cognitive factor:g
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why about factor analysis?
looks for common influences on all scores, shows g affects all the different tasks
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what is fluid intelligence?(GF)
Problem solving Novel experiences Pattern identification Peaks at around 30-40
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what is crystallised intelligence?(GC)
Specific Vocabulary Skills Expands throughout life
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what did Postlethwaite (2011) do?
Meta-analysis Gc better predictor of performance Gc and Gf are not independent
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some examples how g has been rejected
word fluency(comprehension and finding rhymes), numerical computations, serving rules from examples...
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what does Thurstone’s primary mental abilities show?
Thurstone’s abilities show strong intercorrelation Providing support for the very idea of g that he rejected!
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why is hierarchical intelligence
g has aspects on all tests, but other factors influence it too
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what did Alfred Binet (1857-1911) show?
Background: educational reforms in France, How do we identify kids who need extra help? What happens if teachers has preferences? came up with tests to identify best/worst students with social behaviour Q's, memory, logic problems, rhyming,copying pi
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what is ratio IQ?
mental age/phsyical age x 100
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what are weakness of it?
Best estimate for Einstein’s IQ is 193 Children’s learning has spurts and plateaus Less useful in adults
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who showed controversy?
Henry Goddard , tested immigrants, showed feeble mindedness
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who made the intelligence scale?
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, shows items are correlated
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what is Ravens progressive metrics test?
Further attempt to strip away social/linguistic context Perhaps a test of fluid intelligence Early demonstration of Flynn effect Each generation seems to be more intelligent (both fluid and crystallized) than the last
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what is learning?
an adaptive process, creating associations as result of experience, linked to memory,varied types (habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning)
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what is habituation and dishabituation?
decline in responsiveness to a stimulus once it has become familiar, pay attention to unfamiliar stimuli, without scrutinising every stimulus. dishabituation is responding to old stimuli like they were new
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about Ivan Pavlov
Nobel prize in Medicine in 1904 Research interest: digestive physiology Used dogs in his experiments Noticed salivation to other stimuli, not just food
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Ivan Pavlov's experiment?
Dogs were developing new reflexes and changing behaviours, shaped by learning Shows learned association between a pair of stimuli; e.g. bell then food
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what did watson and rayner do?
conditioned albert to be fearful of rats
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what is generalisation?
respond to stimuli similar to original CS
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what is hither stimuli response?
when stimuli is exactly same as first
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what is discrimination?
it refers to an ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and other, similar stimuli that don't signal an unconditioned stimulus
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what is second order conditioning?
a form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus.
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what is extinction?
CR gradually disappears after several presentations of the CS, without the US
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what is : Spontaneous recovery?
the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response
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after what time is optimum for CS to proceed US
0.5 seconds
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what did Baker, Honea & Russell (2004) do?
Is advertising more effective when the brand name (CS) is revealed at the onset of the advert, or when it is withheld until the end?Attitudes to brand (CR) better when the brand name presented at the start
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what do Lee, Lim, Kim, & Choi (2009) show?
People with anxiety display attentional bias to threat-related objectsAngry faces paired with mild electric shockSubsequent emotional Stroop taskParticipants took longer to name the colour angry faces were printed in.Such biases are key to many visor
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what is Taste aversion?
Association between the taste of food with symptoms of gastrointestinal illness
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what did Garcia, & Koelling (1966) find?
Rats were given sweet water (CS) Later, injected with substance that induced nausea (US) After recovery, avoidance of nausea-inducing substance
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what is aversion therapy?
An undesirable behaviour is paired with an aversive stimulus To treat alcoholism, addiction, compulsive gambling, smoking, sexually inappropriate behaviour.E.g. Alcoholism Drugs (US) used to induce nausea (UR), with alcohol as the CS
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what is operant condtioing?
Instrumental learning or reinforcement learning Concerned with initiated behaviours Involves learning new voluntary behaviours
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what is the the law of effect? (edward throndike)
If a behaviour is followed by a reward, the behaviour will be strengthened (i.e. repeated) If a behaviour is not followed by a reward (or is followed by a punishment), the behaviour will be weakened (i.e. less likely to be repeated)
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what was thorndikes experiment?
Puzzle box Cat could escape by pressing a lever and rewarded with food, time took cat to escape got quicker overtime
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what did Skinner do?
Expanded on Thorndike’s work Distinguished between classical and operant conditioning Classical conditioning: behaviour is elicited by the US Operant conditioning: behaviours are ‘voluntary’, originating from within
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whats positive reinforcement?
Give something good (e.g. food)?
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what is negative reinforcement?
Remove something negative (e.g. terminate electric shock)
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what is positive punishment
Give something bad (e.g. pain)
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what is negative punishment?
Remove something good (e.g. driving privileges)
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what is partial reinforcement?
Reinforcement for some behaviours Schedule of reinforcement Ratio schedule Reward occurs after a set number of responses Fixed vs. variable Interval schedule (fixed or variable) Reward occurs after a set period of time Fixed vs. variable
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what is Latent learning?
learning without ay corresponding behaviour change e.g. cognitive map (mental)
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about learned helplessness in operant conditioning
Control over an aversive stimulus (e.g. voluntary response modifies the environment) gives a sense of mastery A lack of control leads to experiences of helplessness E.g. depression
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what about gambling on operant conditioning?
Slot machines rely on variable reinforcement schedules Resistant to extinction even after multiple losses
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what did Laude, Stagner, & Zentall (2014) do?
Pigeons preferred a big output (10 pellets) – even though it only occurred 20% of the time – over a stimulus that always predicted 3 pellets
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what is APA?
Applied Behavioural Analysis Positive reinforcement Rewarding small steps in behaviour change to achieve end goal, and reduce harmful behaviours in Autism Common, but intensive and costly treatment
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addiction?
Negative reinforcement is a key motive for drug use Continued use insulates from the aversive effects
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what is observational learning?
watch how others behave and then copy behaviour e.g. Bobo dolls
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what did Mineka & Ben Hamida (1998) find?
Monkeys can learn to fear a stimulus simply by seeing other monkeys fear it
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what are Mirror Neurons?
Neurons in the frontal lobe, near the motor cortex Neurons fire when performing an action, but also when observing an action being performed
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what is Neural Plasticity?
Capacity of the brain to change neuron structure and function in response to experiences/environment Involves changes at the synapses Modification in the way neurons communicate Changes can involve any of 3 adjustments after learning:
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continued...
Neurons send stronger signals Neurons become more sensitive to signals they receive Creation of new connections between neurons
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what do aplasia studies show? (type of animal)
Marrine mollusc with relatively few neurons (20, 000) Presynaptic facilitation After conditioning, sensory neurons receiving the CS, release more neurotransmitter into the synapse So neurons can trigger a CR they couldn’t trigger before
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continued...
Long term potentiation Increase in responsiveness of a neuron
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what did Hyashi et al (2007) show?
People with Aspergers get higher Ravens progressive matrices test than neurotypical participants
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what do intelligence test tell us?
better predictor of job performance than age, more likely to have graduate drgeee,
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what is emotional intelligence?(intelligence test doesn't tell us this)
Ability to understand, recognise, process emotions in ourselves and others
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what is creativity?(intelligence test doesn't tell us this)
Unusual and counterintuitive ways of thinking
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whats wisdom?(intelligence test doesn't tell us this)
Knowledge about the pragmatics of life
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when using PET scans, what part of brain relates to high g task?
lateral frontal cortex
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what do Gc tasks relate to?
structure
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what do Gf tasks correlate to?
function
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how do you stimulate intelligence?
Aims to use electrical stimulation to affect fluid intelligenceZap middle frontal gyrus/control vertex area with high frequency stimulationThen give RPM task.Stimulation at gamma frequency only significantly increased speed of response on logic task
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what are Ultimate causes ?
evolutionary forces in the past
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what are proximate causes?
evolved mechanisms acting now
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explain homeostatic mechanisms
Mechanisms monitor the organism’s internal environment and work to maintain stability. Deviations from homeostasis create a drive. Drive causes behavior/nerve activity
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what is sympathetic division?
dilutes pupils, accelerate/strengthens heartbeat, relaxes bronchi,inhibits activity in stomach/intestines, contracts blood vessels to conserve heat
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what do parasympathetic nervous system do?
contracts pupils, constricts bronchi, slows heartbeat, stimulates activity, dilates vessels
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about the hyperthalamous
six of a pea, made up of several nuclei, probe implanted into specific area of hypothalamus of cats when probe heated it started to pant and showed vasodilation. temperature affects ion flows across membrane which leads to change in firing
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what i the set point hypothesis?
If animals are deprived of food, they later eat enough to make up for it
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what did Adolphs find?
Decrease calories in rat’s food by mixing in cellulose which does not release calories Rats ate more food and enough to get the calories that they were getting before the cellulose was added. Suggests that set point is based on calories rather than
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how do you maintain your set point?
Your Liver Glucose (sugar) rises in your blood after a meal. Glucose is main energy for body Some used by body; some stored (glycogen or fat) Liver manages conversion to storage If not enough glucose, then liver sends hunger signal liver will also dr
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what are Glucoreceptors in hypothalamus?
They are receptors that detect the amount of glucose in the bloodstreamDestruction of these cells can cause ravenous eatingCells in stomach walls are sensitive to nutrients& send signals that stop eating behaviorSignals short-term blood glucose chang
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what are signals from adipose (fat) cells
When full of fat, cells release leptin, a chemical that causes the organism to stop eating. Signals that plenty of fat is in storage so you don’t need to eat to make more fat Leptin seems to inhibit neuropeptide Y (NPY) which increases appetite
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continued...
If leptin isn’t functioning then NPY can increase appetite. Signals is input from long-term fat stores
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what is Dual-Centre Theory?
Damage to lateral region interrupts initiation of feeding Animal will starve to death unless force fed Damage to ventromedial region Lesions here cause the rats to eat continuously Increases fat storage rate Humans with tutors become obese
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Mutiple Signals: Backup Systems
This multiplicity of signals provides safety for the organism. Each signal provides a “backup” system in case other signals fail. Signals play different roles. Some signal long term resources (leptin) Others signal short-term (gluco-receptors)
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genetic factors in obesity?
if both twins eat more thashould both gain weight, strong correlation between weight gain and twins
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