Biological Molecules Definitions

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  • Created by: JasmineR
  • Created on: 25-10-15 18:41
Monomer
One of many small molecules that combine to form a larger one known as a polymer
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Polymer
Large molecules made up of of repeating smaller molecules (monomers)
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Condensation reaction
Chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a simple substance, usually water. Many biological polymers, such as polysaccharides and polypeptides, are formed by this reaction.
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Benedict's test
A simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of reducing sugars.
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Hydrolysis
The breaking down of large molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water molecules
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Triglyceride
An individual lipid molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
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Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms.
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Mono-unsaturated fatty acid
Fatty acid that possess a carbon chain with a single double bond.
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Unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
Fatty acid that possesses carbon chains with many double bonds.
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Water potential
The pressure created by water molecules. It is the measure of the extent to which a solution gives out water. The greater the number of water molecules present, the higher (less negative) the water potential. Pure water has a water potential of 0.
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Phospholipid
Triglyceride in which one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate molecule. Phospholipids are important in the structure and functioning of plasma membranes.
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Peptide bond
The chemical bond formed between two amino acids during a condensation reaction.
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Primary structure of a protein
The sequence of amino acids that makes up the polypeptides of a protein.
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Secondary structure of a protein
The way in which the chain of amino acids of the polypeptides of protein is folded.
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Tertiary structure of a protein
The folding of a whole polypeptide chain in a precise way, as determined by the amino acids in which it is composed.
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Quarternary structure of a protein
A number of polypeptide chains linked together (and sometimes associated with non-protein groups) to form a protein.
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Hydrogen bond
The chemical formed between the positive charge on a hydrogen atom and the negative on another atom of an adjacent molecule (e.g. between the hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule).
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Biuret test
A simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of protein.
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Enzyme
A protein or RNA that acts as a catalyst and so alters the speed of a biochemical reaction.
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Activation energy
The energy required to bring about a reaction. The activation energy is lowered by the presence of enzymes.
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Active site
A group of amino acids that makes up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits in order to catalyse a reaction.
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Substrate
A substance that is acted on or used by another substance or process.
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Denaturation
Permanent changes due to the unravelling of the three-dimensional structure of a protein as a result of factors such as changes in temperature or pH.
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Kinetic energy
The energy that an object possesses due to its motion.
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Card 2

Front

Large molecules made up of of repeating smaller molecules (monomers)

Back

Polymer

Card 3

Front

Chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a simple substance, usually water. Many biological polymers, such as polysaccharides and polypeptides, are formed by this reaction.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of reducing sugars.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The breaking down of large molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water molecules

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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