Biological Molecules Crossword

a simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of proteins
biuret test
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chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a simple substance, usually water.
condensation
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adenosine triphosphate
ATP
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a simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of reducing sugars
benedict's test
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a group of amino acids that makes up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits in order to catalyse a reaction
active site
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an activated nucleotide found in all living cells that acts as an energy carrier. The hydrolysis of this molecule leads to the formation of adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate, with the release of energy
adenosine triphosphate
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one of the two strands of a chromosome that are joined by a single centromere prior to cell divison
chromatid
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the material that makes up chromosomes. It consists of DNA and the protein histone
chromatin
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a thread-like structure made of protein and DNA by which hereditary information is physically passed from one generation to the next
chromosome
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attraction between molecules of the same type. It is important in the movement of water up a plant
cohesion
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fibrous protein that is the main constituent of connective tissues such as tendons, cartilage and bone
collagen
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type of chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons, one from each atom
covalent bond
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permanent changes due to the unravelling of the three-dimensional structure of a protein as a result of factors such as changes in temperature of pH
denaturation
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having a pair of equal and opposite electrical charges
dipolar
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enzyme that acts on a specific region of the DNA molecule to break the hydrogen bonds between the bases causing the two strands to separate and expose the nucleotide bases in that region
DNA helicase
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enzyme used to form the phosphodiester bonds in DNA strands after DNA replication
DNA polymerase
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the process in which the double helix of a DNA molecule unwinds and each strand acts as a template on which a new strand is constructed
DNA replication
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a protein or RNA that acts as a catalyst and so alters the speed of a biochemical reaction
enzyme
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section of DNA on a chromosome coding for one or more polypeptides
gene
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chemical bond formed between the positive charge on a hydrogen atom and the negative charge on another atom of an adjacent molecule, e.g. between the hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule
hydrogen bond
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the breaking down of larger molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water molecules
hydrolysis
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heat taken in by a liquid in order to transform it into vapour
latent heat of vaporisation
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one of the many small molecules that combine to form a larger one known as a polymer
monomer
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fatty acid that possesses a carbon chain with a single double bond
mono-unsaturated fatty acid
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complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and a phosphate. They are the basic units of which the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made
nucleotides
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the formation of ATP in the electron transport system of aerobic respiration
oxidative phosphorylation
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a sugar that possesses five carbon atoms. Two examples are ribose and deoxyribose
pentose sugar
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the chemical bond formed between two amino acids during condensation
peptide bond
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triglyceride in which one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate molecule. They are important in the structure and functioning of plasma membranes
phospholipid
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large molecules made up of repeating smaller molecules (monomers)
polymer
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group of enzymes that catalyse the formation of long-chain molecules (polymers) from similar basic units (monomers)
polymerases
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fatty acid that possesses carbon chains with many double bonds
polyunsaturated fatty acid
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the sequence of amino acids that makes up the polypeptides of a protein
primary structure
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a number of polypeptide chains linked together, and sometimes associated with non-protein groups, to form a protein
quaternary structure
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a fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms
saturated fatty acid
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the way in which the chain of amino acids of the polypeptides of a protein is folded
secondary structure
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the means by which DNA makes exact copies of itself by unwinding the double helix so that each chain acts as a template for the next. The new copies therefore possess one original and one new strand of DNA
semi-conservative replication
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a substance that is acted on or used by another substance or process. In microbiology, the nutrient medium used to grow microorganisms
substrate
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the formation of ATP by the direct transfer of a phosphate group from a reactive intermediate to ADP
substrate-level phosphorylation
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the folding of a whole polypeptide chain in a precise way, as determined by the amino acids of which it is composed
tertiary structure
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an individual lipid molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
triglyceride
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a fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms
unsaturated fatty acid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a simple substance, usually water.

Back

condensation

Card 3

Front

adenosine triphosphate

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

a simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of reducing sugars

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

a group of amino acids that makes up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits in order to catalyse a reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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