Biological molecules

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What are polymers?
Large, complex molecules composed of long chains of monomers joined together.
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What are monomers?
Small, basic molecular units that can form a polymer.
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What are examples of monomers? (name 3)
Monosaccharides, amino acids, nucleotides
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How are biological polymers formed?
Formed from their monomers by a condensation reaction as this forms a chemical bond between monomers. A molecule of water is also released.
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How are polymers broken down?
Can be broken down into monomers using a water molecule. This is a hydrolysis reaction as it breaks the chemical bond between the monomers.
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What are monosaccharides?
The simplest sugars and are the building blocks of carbohydrates.
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What are the three common examples of monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose, galactose
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What are the two types of isomers of glucose?
Alpha (α) glucose and beta (β) glucose
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How is a disaccharide formed?
Formed when two monosaccharides join together by a condensation reaction releasing a molecule of water.
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What is the name of the bond formed between monosaccharides?
Glycosidic bond
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What is sucrose composed of?
50% glucose and 50% fructose
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What is lactose composed of?
Glucose molecule and a galactose molecule.
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What test would you carry out to identify sugars?
Benedict's test
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What are non-reducing sugars?
Non-reducing sugars are sugars which do not have an aldehyde functional group.
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Card 2

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What are monomers?

Back

Small, basic molecular units that can form a polymer.

Card 3

Front

What are examples of monomers? (name 3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are biological polymers formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are polymers broken down?

Back

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