Biological Molecules

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 20-03-16 14:38
What's a molar solution?
a solution containing 1 mole of solute per litre of water
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What unusual feature do carbon atoms have?
they readily form bonds with other carbon atoms, forming a backbone that other atoms can attach
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What is a condensation reaction?
a reaction that joins small molecules to form large ones + water is eliminated
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What is a hydrolysis reaction?
water is added to break bonds; splitting a large molecule into a small one
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What is a monosaccharide?
a sweet-tasting, soluble monomer that forms crystals
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What is the general formula for monosaccharides?
(CH2O)N
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Formula for glucose?
C6H12O6
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Which molecules are reducing sugars?
all monosaccharides + some disaccharides (maltose)
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What is a reducing sugar?
a sugar that can donate electrons to a chemical
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Why is there a colour change to brick-red in benedicts reagent test?
the monosaccharide reduces copper (ii) sulfate (benedicts), forming copper (i) oxide
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What can you infer from the colour change?
if a reducing sugar is present + how much of it
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Examples of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
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Examples of disaccharides?
maltose, lactose + sucrose
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How are disaccharides formed?
by condensation reaction joining 2 monosacharides by a glycosidic bond. Wtaer is also eliminated
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Polysaccarides are hydrolysed to form?
monosaccharides + disaccharides
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Examples of polysaccharides?
starch, cellulose, glycogen
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What is a polymer?
a large molecule made of smaller repeating units (monomers)
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Purpose of starch?
a major component in food and source of energy in diets
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What 2 types of chains exist in starch?
amylose (unbranched) + amylopectin (branched)
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Where is glycogen found?
in animals + bacteria- stored as small granules in muscle and liver
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What monomer is starch and glycogen made from?
alpha glucose
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What monomer is cellulose made from?
beta glucose (every other monomer inverted 180 degrees)
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What is the structure of cellulose?
straight unbranched chains, running parallel to each other with hydrogen bonds forming cross-linkages between adjacent chains
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What unusual feature do carbon atoms have?

Back

they readily form bonds with other carbon atoms, forming a backbone that other atoms can attach

Card 3

Front

What is a condensation reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a hydrolysis reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a monosaccharide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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