Biological Molecules

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: fjhcab
  • Created on: 19-03-16 21:19
Specific Heat Capacity
The energy needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water by 1 degree celsius
1 of 41
Latent Heat of Evaporation
The amount of heat needed to turn a substance into a gas
2 of 41
High Specific Heat Capacity
Due to hydrogen bonds as they can absorb lots of energy.This means it doesn't have rapid step changes so is a good habitat.
3 of 41
High Latent Heat of Evaporation
Lots of energy needed to break the hydrogen bonds. So its good at cooling things (Sweating)
4 of 41
Very Cohesive
Due to polarity. Helps water to flow, making it good at transporting substances
5 of 41
Good Solvent
Due to polarity. delta + is attracted to negative ion & delta - is attracted to positive ion. So ions will be surrounded by water molecules so will dissolve
6 of 41
Less Dense When Solid
Molecules are further apart in ice as each molecule forms 4 hydrogen bonds to other molecules making a lattice. So is less dense than water so floats. Useful as its insulating swatter doesn't freeze and organisms can still move
7 of 41
Carbohydrates
Polymers made from monosaccharides (monomer). Made up of same 3 elements carbon,hydrogen & oxygen
8 of 41
Glucose
Monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms (hexose). Theres 2 forms alpha glucose & beta glucose
9 of 41
Glucose Structure
Its a main energy source so is soluble so can be easily transported. Its bonds contain lots of energy
10 of 41
Ribose
Is a monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms (pentose).
11 of 41
Monosaccharides
Joined together by glycosidic bonds
12 of 41
Condensation Reaction
A hydrogen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl group. Releasing a molecule of water. The reverse is hydrolysis adding water to break glycosidic bond
13 of 41
Starch
Main energy storage in plants. Mixture of 2 polysaccharides of alpha glucose
14 of 41
Amylose
A long, unbranched chain of alpha glucose
15 of 41
Amylopectin
A long, branched chain of alpha glucose
16 of 41
Glycogen
Main energy storage material in animals. A long, branched chain of alpha glucose
17 of 41
Cellulose
In cell walls in plants. Long, unbranched chain of beta glucose
18 of 41
Triglycerides
A kind of lipid. One molecule of glycerol with 3 fatty acid tails attached
19 of 41
Ester Bonds
Formed between each fatty acid & the glycerol molecule, during a condensation reaction (esterification)
20 of 41
Phospholipid
Formed of glycerol, phosphate group & 2 fatty acid tails
21 of 41
Triglycerides Structure
Energy storage (animals & plants). Long hydrocarbon chains contains lots of energy, released when broken down. Insoluble as hydrophobic tails face inwards, shielding themselves from water with glycerol heads
22 of 41
Phospholipid Structure
Found in membranes (phospholipid bilayer). Heads are hydrophilic and tail tails are hydrophobic so form a double layer. Centre is hydrophobic so water-soluble can't pass through easily
23 of 41
Cholesterol Structure
Has a hydrocarbon ring attach to a hydrocarbon tail. Ring structure has a polar OH group. Small size and flattened shape so can fit between phospholipid bilayer.
24 of 41
Proteins
They are polymers. Made from long chains of amino acids which are monomers. Made up of 1 or more polypeptides
25 of 41
General Structure Of Amino Acids
A carboxyl group (COOH) & an amino group (NH2) attached to a carbon atom. Each different amino acid has a variable group (R)
26 of 41
Peptide Bonds
Formed between amino acids to form dipeptides & polypeptides during a condensation reaction, where water is released
27 of 41
Primary Structure
A sequence of amino acids found in a molecule
28 of 41
Secondary Structure
The coiling & folding of an amino acid due to hydrogen bonds. Forms
29 of 41
Tertiary Structure
Overall 3D shape. Shape arises due to interactions including hydrogen bonding, disulphide bridges, ionic bonding & hydrophobic interactions
30 of 41
Quaternary Structure
Where a protein containing more than one polypeptide chain forms final 3D structure
31 of 41
Calcium- Cation
Involved in nerve impulses & release insulin. Acts as a cofactor for many enzymes. Important for bone structure
32 of 41
Sodium- Cation
Generates nerve impulses & regulating fluid balance in body
33 of 41
Potassium- Cation
Generates nerve impulses & regulating fluid balance in body. Activates enzymes for photosynthesis
34 of 41
Hydrogen- Cation
Affect pH. Also needed for photosynthesis reactions
35 of 41
Ammonium- Cation
Absorbed from soil by plants & is important source of nitrogen
36 of 41
Nitrate- Anion
Absorbed from soil by plants & is important source of nitrogen
37 of 41
Hydrocarbonate- Anion
Acts as a buffer. Helps maintain the pH of blood
38 of 41
Chloride- Anion
Involved in 'chloride shift' which help maintain pH of blood . Acts at a cofactor for enzyme amylase
39 of 41
Phosphate- Anion
Involved in photosynthesis & respiration reactions. Needed for synthesis of many biological molecules, such as nucleotides
40 of 41
Hydroxide- Anion
Affects pH of substances
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Latent Heat of Evaporation

Back

The amount of heat needed to turn a substance into a gas

Card 3

Front

High Specific Heat Capacity

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

High Latent Heat of Evaporation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Very Cohesive

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biological molecules resources »