Biological Molecules

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  • Created by: fjhcab
  • Created on: 19-03-16 21:19
Specific Heat Capacity
The energy needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water by 1 degree celsius
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Latent Heat of Evaporation
The amount of heat needed to turn a substance into a gas
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High Specific Heat Capacity
Due to hydrogen bonds as they can absorb lots of energy.This means it doesn't have rapid step changes so is a good habitat.
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High Latent Heat of Evaporation
Lots of energy needed to break the hydrogen bonds. So its good at cooling things (Sweating)
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Very Cohesive
Due to polarity. Helps water to flow, making it good at transporting substances
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Good Solvent
Due to polarity. delta + is attracted to negative ion & delta - is attracted to positive ion. So ions will be surrounded by water molecules so will dissolve
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Less Dense When Solid
Molecules are further apart in ice as each molecule forms 4 hydrogen bonds to other molecules making a lattice. So is less dense than water so floats. Useful as its insulating swatter doesn't freeze and organisms can still move
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Polymers made from monosaccharides (monomer). Made up of same 3 elements carbon,hydrogen & oxygen
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Monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms (hexose). Theres 2 forms alpha glucose & beta glucose
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Glucose Structure
Its a main energy source so is soluble so can be easily transported. Its bonds contain lots of energy
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Is a monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms (pentose).
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Joined together by glycosidic bonds
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Condensation Reaction
A hydrogen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl group. Releasing a molecule of water. The reverse is hydrolysis adding water to break glycosidic bond
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Main energy storage in plants. Mixture of 2 polysaccharides of alpha glucose
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A long, unbranched chain of alpha glucose
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A long, branched chain of alpha glucose
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Main energy storage material in animals. A long, branched chain of alpha glucose
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In cell walls in plants. Long, unbranched chain of beta glucose
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A kind of lipid. One molecule of glycerol with 3 fatty acid tails attached
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Ester Bonds
Formed between each fatty acid & the glycerol molecule, during a condensation reaction (esterification)
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Formed of glycerol, phosphate group & 2 fatty acid tails
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Triglycerides Structure
Energy storage (animals & plants). Long hydrocarbon chains contains lots of energy, released when broken down. Insoluble as hydrophobic tails face inwards, shielding themselves from water with glycerol heads
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Phospholipid Structure
Found in membranes (phospholipid bilayer). Heads are hydrophilic and tail tails are hydrophobic so form a double layer. Centre is hydrophobic so water-soluble can't pass through easily
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Cholesterol Structure
Has a hydrocarbon ring attach to a hydrocarbon tail. Ring structure has a polar OH group. Small size and flattened shape so can fit between phospholipid bilayer.
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They are polymers. Made from long chains of amino acids which are monomers. Made up of 1 or more polypeptides
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General Structure Of Amino Acids
A carboxyl group (COOH) & an amino group (NH2) attached to a carbon atom. Each different amino acid has a variable group (R)
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Peptide Bonds
Formed between amino acids to form dipeptides & polypeptides during a condensation reaction, where water is released
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Primary Structure
A sequence of amino acids found in a molecule
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Secondary Structure
The coiling & folding of an amino acid due to hydrogen bonds. Forms
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Tertiary Structure
Overall 3D shape. Shape arises due to interactions including hydrogen bonding, disulphide bridges, ionic bonding & hydrophobic interactions
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Quaternary Structure
Where a protein containing more than one polypeptide chain forms final 3D structure
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Calcium- Cation
Involved in nerve impulses & release insulin. Acts as a cofactor for many enzymes. Important for bone structure
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Sodium- Cation
Generates nerve impulses & regulating fluid balance in body
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Potassium- Cation
Generates nerve impulses & regulating fluid balance in body. Activates enzymes for photosynthesis
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Hydrogen- Cation
Affect pH. Also needed for photosynthesis reactions
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Ammonium- Cation
Absorbed from soil by plants & is important source of nitrogen
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Nitrate- Anion
Absorbed from soil by plants & is important source of nitrogen
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Hydrocarbonate- Anion
Acts as a buffer. Helps maintain the pH of blood
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Chloride- Anion
Involved in 'chloride shift' which help maintain pH of blood . Acts at a cofactor for enzyme amylase
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Phosphate- Anion
Involved in photosynthesis & respiration reactions. Needed for synthesis of many biological molecules, such as nucleotides
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Hydroxide- Anion
Affects pH of substances
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Card 2


Latent Heat of Evaporation


The amount of heat needed to turn a substance into a gas

Card 3


High Specific Heat Capacity


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Card 4


High Latent Heat of Evaporation


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Very Cohesive


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