biological molecules

what is the bond formed between two monosaccharides
glycosidic bond
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what forms the disaccharide maltose
glucose and glucose
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what is the disaccharide formed by glucose and fructose
sucrose
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how is the disaccharide lactose formed
glucose and galactose
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what is the test for reducing sugars
add 2cm^3 of food sample to water, then add 2cm3 of benedicts reagent heat gently in a water bath
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if reducing sugars present what colour does it go
blue to orange brown
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what is the test for non reducing sugars
2cm3 of food sample add to an equal volume of benedicts, place in boiling water for 5 minutes no change means they are not present, then add 2cm3 of food sample and HCL , then add sodium hydrogencarbonate to neutalise HCL
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what are the structures of a starch molecule
it is insoluble and doesnt affect water potential, does not diffuse out of cells,compact,easily transported,has many branched ends
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what are the structures of a glycogen molecule
it is insoluble, compact, more highly branched meaning it is more rapidly broken down to form glucose monomers
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what are the structures of a cellulose molecule
straight unbranched chains,forms microfibrils,provides rigidity to the plant cell, prevents cell from bursting as water enters
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what are the roles of lipids
source of energy when oxidised, insoluble in water, good insulators of heat, good protection
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what is the bond formed between glycerol and a fatty acid
ester bond
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what are the structure of triglycerides
have low mass to energy ratio good as storage molecules, large non polar molecules so they ar einsoluble in water, release water when oxidised
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what is the test for lipids
test tube, add 2cm3 of food sample and add 5cm3 of ethanol, shake the tube thoroughly add 5cm3 shake gently it should go cloudy white
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what are the 4 chemical groups of an amino acid
The amino group, the carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and a r side group
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how are dipeptides formed
dipeptides are formed by the condensation reaction of two amino acids
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how is a polypeptide formed
it is formed by the condensation are formed by the condensation reaction of many amino acids
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what does the primary structure of a protein determine
the sequence of amino acids
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what does the secondary structure of a protein determine
it is the folding of a protein either into an alpha helix or beta sheet
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what does the tertiary structure of a protein determine
is the bonding of hydrogen,ionic and disulphide bridges
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out of the three bonds in the tertiary structure which is the stronges
disulphide
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what causes ionic bonds to break
a change in the ph
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which is the weakest of the bonds
hydrogen bonds
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what does the quaternary structure of a protein determine
it is the joining of other prosthetic groups eg haem
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what is the test for proteins
place sample in a test tube add an equal volume of sodium hydroxide,then add a few drops of copper sulphate mix gently purple coloration indicates peptide bonds
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what is the role of globular proteins
they are used for metabolic functions
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what is the role of fibrous proteins
usually have structural roles
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what is the site of an enzyme at which a substrate binds
active site
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what do enzymes do to a reaction
they lower the total activation energy
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what is the complex formed when an enzyme binds to a substrate
enzyme substrate complex
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what happens when the complex is formed
the tertiary structure changes slightly this is to allow the active site and substrate to bind together
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what is the word used to describe when an enzyme binds to a substrate
specific
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what does the enzyme catalase break down
hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
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what does amylase and trypsin breakdown
proteins and carbohydrates
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what will happen to the enzyme if the ph is changed
it will denature and the hydrogen bonding in the tertiary structure will change
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what happens when there is a small increase in temperature to an enzyme
A small change will mean the enzyme has more kinetic energy meaning more successful collisions and more chance of the E-S complex forming
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what happens when the amount of enzyme concentration is increased
it will mean the enzymes and substrate react more provided that there is excess substrate
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describe the structure of a nucleotide molecule
it has a phosphate, a deoxyribose sugar and a base
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what is the bond formed between two mononucleotides
a phosphodiester bond
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what are the functions of DNA
preserve base sequences and information,long molecule lots of information can be stored
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what is the structure of dna
stable polynucleotide,long chain, double helix
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what is a sequence of 3 amino acids called
triplet
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describe the process of transcription
Dna unzips by DNA helicase,Rna nucleotide bases pair up with exposed DNA bases,RNA synthase forms covalent bonds between nucleotide bases,mRNA is formed and breaks away from DNA which the re-zips itself up, mRNA leaves through the nuclear pores.
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describe the process of DNA replication
DNA double helix unzips and hydrogen bonds break, this is done by DNA helicase, exposed base acts as a template,free nucleotides move towards these exposed bases DNA polymerase binds the nucleotides together forming a new sugar phosphate backbone
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what are the properties of water
it is a metabolite, it is an important solvent in these metabolic reactions,has a relatively high heat capacity,has a relatively large latent of heat vaporisation providing a cooling effect, has strong cohesions between other water molecules
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what are the different roles of inorganic ions
hydrogen ions determine the ph acidic environments have lots of free hydrogen ions,iron ions form part of haemoglobin as a prosthetic group,sodium ions involved in cotransport with glucose, phosphate ions are major components of DNA and RNA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what forms the disaccharide maltose

Back

glucose and glucose

Card 3

Front

what is the disaccharide formed by glucose and fructose

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

how is the disaccharide lactose formed

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the test for reducing sugars

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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