biological molecules

  • Created by: Ems9
  • Created on: 12-05-18 12:41
what elements are carbohydrates made up of?
carbon,hydrogen and oxygen
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what is a condensation reaction?
the joining of two molecules to form a new chemical bond while releasing a water molecule
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what bond is formed in a condensation reaction?
glycosidic bond
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sucrose is made up of what molecules?
glucose and fructose
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lactose is made up of what molecules?
glucose and galactose
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what is a hydrolysis reaction?
the breakdown of polymers into monomers using a water molecule
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test for reducing sugars
add benedicts reagent, heat in a water bath until boiling, colour change indicates concentration of sugar
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benedicts test results
blue, grean, yellow, orange, brick red
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test for non-reducing sugars
add dilute HCL, bring to boil in water bath, add sodium hydrocarbonate, add benedicts reagent
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what is start made up of?
amylose and amylopectin- alpha glucose molecules
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why is starch good for storage?
insoluble in water so doesnt affect water potential
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test for starch
add iodine dissolved in potassium iodide solution to sample, goes blue-black if starch is present
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what is cellulose made up of?
beta-glucose
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what are triglycerides made up of?
one glycerole and three fatty acids
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how are triglycerides formed?
condensation reaction between glycerole molecule and fatty acid to produce ester bond
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saturated triglyceride
no double bonds between carbon atoms
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unsaturated triglyceride
at least one double carbon bond, casues the chain to kink
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what are phospholipids made up of?
one phosphate group, one glycerol and two fatty acids
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function related to structure of phospholipid
phosphate group is hydrophilic, fatty acid tails are hydrophobic. important for cell membranes, form a double layer with heads facing out. centreof bilayer is hydrophobic so water-soluble molecules cant pass through easily
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function related to structure of triglyceride
energy store molecules, fattyacid tails contin lots of chemical energy, insolubleso dont affect waterpotential
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test for lipids
shake test substance with ethanol, pour into water, if lipid is present milky emulsion is present
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what are proteins made up of?
amino acids
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amino acid structure
carboxyl group, amino group and a variabel R group
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how are polypeptides formed?
condensation reaction between amnio acid molecules, releasing a water molecule
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what bond is formed between amino acids?
peptide bond
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primary structure of a protein
sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain
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secondary structure of a protein
hydrogen bonds form between amino acids in chain, creates alpha helix shapeor beta pleated sheet strucutre
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tertiary structure of a protein
chain of amino acids is coiled up further with more hydrogen bonds forming andionic bonds forming between positive and negative charges, creates 3-D structure
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quaternary structure of a protein
multiple polypeptides chains joined together
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functions of proteins
enzymes, antibodies, transport proteins, structurl proteins
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test for proteins
ad sodium hydroxide solutionto make it alkaline, add copper sulphate, protein present will go purple
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what are enzymes?
biological catalysts which speed up the rate of reaction without being used up
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how doenzymes speed up rate of reaction?
lower the activation energy for the reaction, when substrate is attached to enzyme isis closer to molecule it needs to bind with reducng repulsion so bond more easily, to breakdown molecule bonds in substrate in active site are put under strain
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induced fit model
as substrate gets close to active site it changes shape to fit the substrate
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what is a competitive inhibitor?
similar shape to substrate, binds to active site but no reaction
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what is a non-competitive inhibitor?
binds to allosteric site, cause enzyme to change shape so substrate no longer fits active site
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what is DNA?
store of genetic information, double stranded, alpha helix
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what is RNA?
transfers gentic info from DNA to ribosomes, single strand
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what is DNA and RNA made up of?
nucleotides (pentose sugar,organic base, phosphate group)
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what is the pentsoe sugar in DNA and RNA?
DNA= deoxyribose, RNA=ribose
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how are nucleic acids joined together?
condensation between phosphate and pensose sugar of nucleotides to form phosphodiester bond
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DNA replication- unzipping
DNA helicase breaks hydrogenbonds between two strands of DNA
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DNA replication- template
free floating nucleotides attracted to complimentary bases of original strand
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DNA replication- condensation reaction
DNA polymerase joins nucleoitdes of new strand together, hydrogen bonds form betwen original and new strand
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characteristics of water
solvent, cohesive, high latent heat capacity, buffer
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structure of water
one oxygen and two hydrogen with shared electrons, polar molecule
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what is ATP made up of?
adenine base, ribose, 3 phosphate groups
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what is ATP?
the energy released from glucose is used to make ATP, quick to make and use
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Card 2

Front

what is a condensation reaction?

Back

the joining of two molecules to form a new chemical bond while releasing a water molecule

Card 3

Front

what bond is formed in a condensation reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

sucrose is made up of what molecules?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

lactose is made up of what molecules?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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