Cells

  • Created by: 17Ritika
  • Created on: 01-10-18 17:49
Cell Surface Membrane
Membrane is found on the surface of animal cells ans just inside the cell wall of other cells made from mainly lipids and proteins. The function it controls the movement of substance in and out the cell and has receptors allowing to respond to chemic
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Nucleus
Surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope containing many pores. Nucleus itself chromosomes and a further structure called a nucleous. Pores allow substance to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and nucelolus makes ribosomes.
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Mitochondrion
Double membrane, inner folded to form the cristae, inner is matrix containing enzymes. This is where aerobic respiration takes place to produce ATP
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Chloroplast
Double membrane and has a membranes inside called thylakoid membranes. Stacked up called a grana linked by a lamellae. This is the site of photosynthesis.
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Golgi Apparatus
Fluid filled membrane bound filled sacs, vesicles are at the edge of this. Processes and packages new lipids and proteins and makes lysosomes.
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Golgi Vesicle
Produced by the golgi apparatus, stores lipids and proteins by the golgi apparatus and transports them out of the cell
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Lysosomes
A type of golgi vesicle, it contains a digestive enzyme called lysozymes, which are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane, used to digest invading cells
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Ribosome
Small organelle that will floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum. Made up of proteins and RNA. This is the site where the proteins are made from
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space, surface is covered with ribosomes. This folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has no ribosomes on the surface and synthesises and processes lipids
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Cell wall
Rigid structure that surronds cells in plants, algae and fungi. In plants and algae its made out of cellulose and in fungi its made out of chitin. It supports cells and prevents them from changing shape
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Cell Vacuole
Membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm containing cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts. Surrounding membrane is called tonoplast. This helps maintain the pressure inside the cell and keep the cell rigid, stops plants from wilting.
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Prokaryotes
Singles celled organisms , such as bacteria like E.coil. Small less than 2 micrometers in diameter
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Cell surface membrane
Made out of lipids and proteins, controls movement of substance in and out the cell
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Cytoplasm
Contains ribosomes but smaller that are found in a eukaryotic cell
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Cell wall
Supports the cell and prevents it from changing shape and made up of a polymer called murein - glycoprotein.
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Capsule
Made up of secreted slime and helps protect the bacteria from attack by cells of the immune system
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Plasmids
Small loops of DNA that are part of the main circular DNA molecule as they contain genes.
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Free floating DNA
Circular DNA present as one long coiled up strand, not attached to any histone protein
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Flagellum
Long hair like structure that rotates to make the cell move, some have more than one
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Binary Fission
Prokaryotic cells replicate by a process called binary fission, where the cell replicates its genetic material before physically splitting into two daughter cells
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Process 1
Circular DNA and plasmids replicate, main DNA loop replicate once but plasmids replicate multiple times.
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Process 2
Cell gets bigger and the DNA loops move to opposite poles of the cells
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Process 3
Cytoplasm begins to divide cell walls begin to form
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Process 4
Cytoplasm starts to divide and two daughter cells are produced, Each daughter cell has one copy of the circular DNA, but can have a variable number of copies of the plasmids
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Viruses
Acelluar meaning they are not cells. They are just nucleic acid surronded by protein, they have a protein coat coat called a capsid with attachment proteins sticking out from it. allowing it to cling onto a host cell
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Viral Replication
Inject DNA OR RNA into host cell, using it to replicate viral particles .
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Process of Viral Replication
Attach to host cell by attachment proteins to bind to complementary receptor cells.
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Magnification
Magnification = Size of image / size of real object
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Resolution
How detailed the image is, how well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are close together.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope containing many pores. Nucleus itself chromosomes and a further structure called a nucleous. Pores allow substance to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and nucelolus makes ribosomes.

Back

Nucleus

Card 3

Front

Double membrane, inner folded to form the cristae, inner is matrix containing enzymes. This is where aerobic respiration takes place to produce ATP

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Double membrane and has a membranes inside called thylakoid membranes. Stacked up called a grana linked by a lamellae. This is the site of photosynthesis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Fluid filled membrane bound filled sacs, vesicles are at the edge of this. Processes and packages new lipids and proteins and makes lysosomes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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