Biological Explanations of AN

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Emilyio
  • Created on: 14-04-16 16:00
What is restrictive-type anorexia?
This is where the sufferers RESTRICT their food intake.
1 of 39
What is Binge-eating/purging-type anorexia?
There will be periods of restrictive eating followed by a period of binge-eating before purging it back up, whether this being laxatives, vomiting or excessive exercise.
2 of 39
(A01) Serotonin - Bailer et al 2007
compared serotonin activity in women recovery from restricting type and binge/purging type AN. with healthy controls. Much higher serotonin in binge/purge. Highest serotonin in most anxiety riddled. = persistent disruption of serotonin = anxiety = AN
3 of 39
(A01)What is the Basal Ganglia, (BG)?
A part of the brain that plays a part in the interpretation of harm and pleasure. Increased dopamin in this areas alters the perception of rewards.
4 of 39
(A01) Dopamine - Kaye Et al. 2005
Used PET scans to compare dopamine of 10 women recovering from AN and 12 healthy women. AN = overactivity of dopamine receptors in BG. Those with AN find it hard to associate good feelings to things most other people find pleasurable, like food.
5 of 39
(A01)What is Hypoxia?
This means that there are a lack of oxygen in a brain which can cause brain damage.
6 of 39
(A01)Pregnancy and birth complications - Lindberg & Hjern 2003
found a significant association between premature birth and development of AN. Birth complications may lead to brain damage by hypoxia, impairing the neurodevelopment. Nutritional factors ma be implicated in the mother has an ED.
7 of 39
(A01)Pregnancy and birth complications - Bulik et al 2005
suggests that mothers with AN expose their offspring t oa double -disadvantage - transmission of genetic bulnerability to AN and inadequate nutrition during pregnancy.
8 of 39
(A01) Season of birth - Eagles et al 2001
Suggests that those born in the Spring months are more likely to have AN.
9 of 39
(A01) Why are Spring babies more likely to suffer from AN?
Intrauterine infections during pregnancy and temperature at time of conception.
10 of 39
(A01) Season of birth - Willoughby et al 2005
found that amog patients with AN in equatorial regions of the world, there was no seasonality effects in AN development.
11 of 39
(A01) Reproductive Suppression - Surbey 1987
suggests that adolescent girls' desire to control their weight represents an evolutionary adaptation to which delayed the onset of sexual maturation in response to cues about the probability of poor reproductive success.
12 of 39
(A01) Reproductive Suppression - Why is delaying reproduction adaptive?
Because it enables a female to avoid giving birth at a time when conditions are not conductive to her offsprings survival.
13 of 39
(A01) Reproductive Suppression - What does Surby argue an being a 'Disordered Variant'?
He claims AN is a disordered variant of the adaptive ability of females to alter the timing of reproduction at a time when they're unable to cope with the biological, emotional and social responsibilities of womanhood.
14 of 39
(A01) What does AFFH stand for?
Adaptive to Flee Famine Hypothesis
15 of 39
(A01) Adapted to flee hypothesis - Guisinger 2003
proposes that the typical AN symptoms of food restrictionm hyperactivitym, and denial of starvation, reflect the operation of adaptive mechanisms that once caused migration in response to local famine conditions.
16 of 39
(A01) What happens physiologically when a person begins to lose weight, and why?
Tehir body conserves energy and increases the desire for food. These adaptations facilitate survival in hard times.
17 of 39
(A01) What's the issue with AFFH and our ancestors?
Among ancestral nomadic foragers, when weight loss was due to a severe depletion of local food resources, this adaptation must be turned off to increase liklihood of survival by migrating to a more favourable environment.
18 of 39
(A01) What is Migratory Restlessness?
An increase in a species hyperactivity in times of food shortages and prior to migration.
19 of 39
(A01) Describe the migratory restlessness in starving foragers.
In the EEA, those starving foragersers who decieved themselves about their physical condition would have been more confident about moving on to a more favourable environment in terms of food availability and so would be more likely to survive.
20 of 39
(A01) Link ancestral migratory restlessness to modern day anorexics.
The hyperactivity typically found in anorexics may be a form of migratory restlessness becuase among those genetically vulnerable to AN, losing too much weight may trigger these mechanisms.
21 of 39
(A02) What are SSRI's?
Selective Serotonin Re-Uptake Inhibitors. Drugs that work by selectively preventing the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic gap, thus leaving more serotonin available at the synapse to excite surrounding neurons.
22 of 39
(A02) What's one problem with the explanation of neurotransmitters.
SSRI's, which alter levels of available brain serotonin, are ineffective when used with AN patients.
23 of 39
(A02) Serotonin - Kaye et al 2001
However, found that when used with recovering AN patients, tehse drugs WERE effective in preventing relapse. Malnutrition-related changed in seotonin function may negate the action of SRRI's, which only become effective when weight returns to normal.
24 of 39
(A02) What's Homovanillic Acid?
A waste product of dopamine
25 of 39
(A02) Dopamine - Castro-Fornieles et al 2006
found tha adolescent girls with AN had higher levels of homovanillic acid than a control group. Weight improvement was associated with homovinallic acid increases.
26 of 39
(A02) Dopamine - Wang et al 2001
Research has shown lower than normal levels of dopamine receptors in the brains of obese individuals. Levels of dopamine appear to be inversely related to body weight, although whether this is a causeor a consequence is not yet clear.
27 of 39
(A02) What is placental infarction?
Obstructed blood supply in the placenta
28 of 39
(A02) Obstetric complications - Favaro et al 2006
Prospective birth study (following them from birth to adulthood) provides support. He found that perinatal complications significantly associated with the risk of developing AN were placental infarction, ealy eating difficulties and low birth weight
29 of 39
(A02) Season of Birth - Eagles et al 2005
Family composition, They found that anorexic individuals tend to belater in birth order compared with healthy individuals. The mroe elder siblings a chld has while in the wombm the mothers more susceptible to get infections to be passed to the child.
30 of 39
(A02) Season of Birth - Eagles et al 2005 suggests?
The critical period for brain development is the second trimester of pregnancy, so for a spring birth the second trimester would occur at the time of year when infections are more likely.
31 of 39
(A02) What is menarche?
The onset of puberty
32 of 39
(A02) Reproduction Suppression - support
The observation that menarche is delayed in prepubertal girls with AN supports this. Since Amenorrhoea is a typical characteristicm it shows reproduction is suspended in anorexic females.
33 of 39
(A02) Treatment Implications of AFFH - Guisinger 2003
Claims that the AFHH relieves therapists of the need to search for familial reasons for AN. A struggle between anorexics and those wanting them to get better is often reported. Awareness of this can influence treatment.
34 of 39
(A02) Problems associated with evolutionary explanations
WThere is the questioning of how symptoms of AN might be passed on by natural selection particularly as they decrease fertility and may even kill the individual. AN would be more functional in ancestral conditions, outside its setting AN is deadly.
35 of 39
(A02) Treatment Implications - Bulik et al 2006
suggests that if we could use a persons genetic profile to indicate a level of risk. it'd be possible to develop specificly tailored preventions.
36 of 39
(A02) Treatment Implications - Additional advantage
Treatments linked to bio- explanations able people to realise they are dealing with a dysfunctional biology (treatable) rather than dysfunctional family (non-treatable). Importantly it reduces guilt from parents who would have 'caused' the illness.
37 of 39
(A03) Gender Bias
Most studies in this area are based on Women, but according to recent stats, 25% of adults with ED's are male. however it is not clear whether boys and men have beeb ignored or ED's in men have grown in 10 years. It DOES show ED's are not just female
38 of 39
(A03) Real World Application - Insurance Payouts
In the US, treatment for AN is restricted under many insurance policies because its not considered 'biologically based'. However, insurance companies should consider AN in the same way of other psychiatric conditions (like SZ) that are 'biological'.
39 of 39

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

There will be periods of restrictive eating followed by a period of binge-eating before purging it back up, whether this being laxatives, vomiting or excessive exercise.

Back

What is Binge-eating/purging-type anorexia?

Card 3

Front

compared serotonin activity in women recovery from restricting type and binge/purging type AN. with healthy controls. Much higher serotonin in binge/purge. Highest serotonin in most anxiety riddled. = persistent disruption of serotonin = anxiety = AN

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A part of the brain that plays a part in the interpretation of harm and pleasure. Increased dopamin in this areas alters the perception of rewards.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Used PET scans to compare dopamine of 10 women recovering from AN and 12 healthy women. AN = overactivity of dopamine receptors in BG. Those with AN find it hard to associate good feelings to things most other people find pleasurable, like food.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Eating disorders resources »