Biological Explanations for Phobic Disorders

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Genetics - Family AO1
Refer to the idea of an increase in risk of having an eating disorder if a family member has also had one or currently has one.
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Genetics - Family AO2
Fyer (1995) found that probands had three times as many relatives who also experienced phobias as normal controls. Solyom (1974) found that 45% of phobic patients had at least one relative with the disorder compared to a rate of 17% of non-phobics.
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Genetics - Family AO2
Ost (1989) found that 64% of blood phobics had at least one relative with the same disorder.
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Genetics - Twins AO1
Comparisons made between identical twins and non identical twins. Twins enable us to see the extent to which genes play a part - Mz with 100% and Dz with 50%. Meaning a closer concordance rate between Mz twins acts as evidence for a genetic basis.
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Genetics - Twins AO2
Togersen (1983) compared Mz and same-sex Dz twins where one twin had an anxiety disorder with panic attacks and found that such disorders were five times more frequent in Mz twin pairs.
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Genetics - Twins AO2
Kenler found a concordance rate of 23% in Bulemia in Mz and 9% in Dz with a heritability rate of 55% - yet still leaving 45% possibly down to other factors.
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Genetics - Twins IDA
The studies fail control for shared environmental experiences, meaning the study can lack validity.
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Evolutionary - AO1
Identifies that through natural selection, a behaviour that puts the organism at risk and is maladaptive should be selected out of the human gene pool. A phobia may be an exagerrated form of this normal, adaptive response.
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Evolutionary - AO2
Avoidance response is fast and unconsciously occurring. Equipotent stimuli.
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Evolutionary - AO1
Prepardness - Seligman argues a phobia of almpst any stimulus can be learned
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Evolutionary - AO2
Ohman et al (1975) participants could be easily classically conditioned to fear snakes or spides but not flowers.
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Evolutionary - AO2
Mineka - monkeys - more likely to fear snakes over flowers after observing a monkey
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Evolutionary - AO1
Prepotency - feel anxiety before rather than after the event.
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Evolutionary - AO2
Ohman and Soares (1994) - masked pictures - participants who were fearful of snkaes or spiders showed greater GSR when briefly shown masked images compared to viewing neutral pictures.
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Evolutionary - IDA
Evolutionary theory is reductionist as it can easily explain ancient phobias through predisposition and innate tendencies. But not applicable to phobias such as buttons or foods.
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Card 2

Front

Fyer (1995) found that probands had three times as many relatives who also experienced phobias as normal controls. Solyom (1974) found that 45% of phobic patients had at least one relative with the disorder compared to a rate of 17% of non-phobics.

Back

Genetics - Family AO2

Card 3

Front

Ost (1989) found that 64% of blood phobics had at least one relative with the same disorder.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Comparisons made between identical twins and non identical twins. Twins enable us to see the extent to which genes play a part - Mz with 100% and Dz with 50%. Meaning a closer concordance rate between Mz twins acts as evidence for a genetic basis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Togersen (1983) compared Mz and same-sex Dz twins where one twin had an anxiety disorder with panic attacks and found that such disorders were five times more frequent in Mz twin pairs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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