Biological explanations for depression.

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  • Created by: Abw97
  • Created on: 27-01-16 22:57
What did Hammen say the 4 factors of depression are to support it being biological? (intro)
Symptoms = physical changes, Runs in the family, Success of biological treatments, Injury or illness gave arise to depression.
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What did Gershon say about Family Studies? (AO1)
1st degree relative = risk factor. He used probands and examined whether other members of the family had or were likely to have depression. Genetic link = probands relatives should show higher rates of depression.
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What did Harrington et al find about Family Studies? (AO1)
Proband relatives = 20% have depression compared to 10% for rest of population.
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Explain Twin studies. (AO1)
MZ = clones = 100% DNA.... DZ = 50% DNA.... If we assume environment is the same, then any greater difference in MZ compared to DZ show the action of genes.
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What did McGuffin find about Twin Studies? (AO1)
177 probands and co-twins. Concordance rates... MZ = 46% .... DZ = 20%
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What did Zhang et al find to support genetic factors? (AO2)
A mutant gene which starves the brain of serotonin is 10x more likely to be in depressed than non depressed. The mutant gene codes for the brains enzyme, which makes serotonin = 80% reduction of normal serotonin levels in the brain.
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What did Caron et al find about the mutant gene? (AO2)
9 in 87 depressed patients had the mutant gene. 3 in 219 healthy controls had the mutant gene. Those with the mutant gene didn't respond well to SSRIs = mutation may be the cause of a treatment resistant type of depression.
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What is wrong with the concordance rates in Twin Studies? (AO2)
If DNA is 100% in MZ twins, why is it concordance rates are only 46%. You would expect concordance rates to also be 100%. this suggests their are different factors other than genetics causing depression.
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What did Bunney et al find about Noradrenaline (AO1)
Deficiency in brain circuits of noradrenaline. Indirect markers (by products found in urine) of noradrenalin in the brain were low in depressed individuals.
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What did Postmortem studies reveal (AO1)
Increased densities of noradrenaline receptors in depressed suicide victims.
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What is up-regulation?
When transmitter molecules are scarce in synapses, post synaptic cells expand receptor numbers, to pick up what ever signals they can.
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What did Leonard find to support noradrenaline and depression? (AO2)
Drugs that lower noradrenaline levels = depressive state. Drugs that increase noradrenaline levels = antidepressant effect.
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What did Kraft et al find to support noradrenaline and depression. (AO2)
96 patients with major depression, treated for 6 week with dual SNRI. These showed more positive response than those treated with a placebo = supports link between decrease in neurotransmitters and development of depressive symptoms.
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Card 2

Front

What did Gershon say about Family Studies? (AO1)

Back

1st degree relative = risk factor. He used probands and examined whether other members of the family had or were likely to have depression. Genetic link = probands relatives should show higher rates of depression.

Card 3

Front

What did Harrington et al find about Family Studies? (AO1)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain Twin studies. (AO1)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did McGuffin find about Twin Studies? (AO1)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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