• Created by: _marxlee
  • Created on: 13-01-19 10:47
human physiognomy. Studied cadavers to determine the relationship between the human body and crime. Assessed person's character from their outer appearance
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claimed to have identified a relationship between behaviour and facial structure.
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six volume treatise on phrenology measured criminality via cranial bumps. Basis of the external shape of the skull
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inspired by Darwinism, identified criminals as hereditary anomalies possessing atavistic features. Enormous jaws, asymmetry of the face
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supporting evidence theorists
Christiansen 1977, Crowe 1972, Brunner et al 1993, Finsell, Lichtenstein and Langstrom 2010, Farrington 1992, Raine 2002, Dugdale
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Christiansen 1977
studied 3586 twin pairs from the Danish Islands- concordance rates of 35% (mz) and 13% (dz) for male twins and 21% (mz) and 8% (dz) for female twins
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Crowe 1972
compared a group of adopted children whose biological mothers had a criminal record to a control group of adopted children whose biological mother did not. Found that if a biological mother had a criminal record, 50% of the adopted children had a cri
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Brunner et al 1993
analysis of a large family in netherlands, a number of which had been responsible for various accounts of anti social and criminal behaviour. Found that the males had a genetic condition which later became known as brunner's syndrome.
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Finsell, Lichtenstein and Langstrom 2010
investigated all conviction for violent crime in Sweden between 1973 and 2004. Sample consisted of 12.5 million individuals. Found strong evidence that violent crimes run in families.
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Farrington 1992-
delinquents are more likely to have convicted parents or delinquent older siblings. Psychobiological influence on the development of delinquent behaviour.
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Raine 2002
there is now clear evidence from twin studies, adoption studies, twins reared aparts, and molecular genetic studies to support the notion that there are genetic influences on antisocial and aggressive behaviour.
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The Jukes. Over the years more than half of the 709 people related to the family by blood or marriage were criminals, prostitutes or destitute. Study found a potentially heriatary aspect.
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applications theorists
Taylor, Walton and Young 1973, Telegraph 2008, Hippchen 1978
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Taylor, Walton and Young 1973-
system started to change: practices were introduced. Rehabilitation groups, programs, parole, probation. Opened up the CJS to express such as treatment specialists, probation workers etc. sought to help offenders with their problems
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Telegraph 2008
pedophiles to be offered form of chemical castration. Sex offenders volunteering to take medication to reduce their testosterone levels to those of pre-pubescent boys. Evidence from scandinavian- rates of reoffending have been cut to 5% from more tha
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Hippchen 1978
argued that biochemical findings could be combined with knowledge about socio psychological factors to develop a more complete theory of criminal behaviour, thus improving both prediction and treatment.
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biological determinism theorists
Nelkin and Lindee 1996, Sutherland 1947-, Bandura 1977-
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Nelkin and Lindee 1996
the belief in genetic destiny implies that flaws and failings are inscribed in an unchangeable text- the DNA- that will persist in creating criminals even under the most ideal social circumstances.
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Sutherland 1947
criminal behaviour is learnt. Deviant behaviour can occur as a result of social interactional and relationships.
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Bandura 1977-
children are born tabula rasa, so all behaviour is learnt. Bobo doll study showed children observing models behaviour and intimidating them
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biological reductionism theorists
Cartwright 2000-
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Cartwright 2000-
any trait, characteristic, or behaviour of any living thing is always the result of biological factors interacting with environmental factors.
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counter evidence
Goring 1913, Kaplan 1980, Christiansen 1977, Nagin 2007, Bowlby 1969, Campbell 1981
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Goring 1913
attempted to replicate lombroso's finding by comparing a large group of offenders with a control group and found no significant difference between the two groups
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Kaplan 1980-
self derogation theory- if individuals experience persistently poor interactions with others they will develop lower self esteem and increased frustration with others. More likely to commit criminal behaviour
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Christiansen 1977
studied 3586 twin pairs from the Danish Islands- concordance rates of 35% (mz) and 13% (dz) for male twins and 21% (mz) and 8% (dz) for female twins (OR SUPPORT)
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Nagin 2007
crime is due to people making choices to commit crimes, weigh up pros and cons
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Bowlby 1969
mportance of attachment between a child and primary caregiver. Child suffered prolonged period of maternal deprivation during the first 5 years of life. Becoming a cold ‘affectionless character’ and a delinquent.
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Campbell 1981
explanations of human behaviour in terms of genetics or biology are always dubious.
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methodological shortcomings
Kessler Moos 1970, Schmalleger 2006, Walters and White
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Kessler Moos 1970
eviewed literature and pointed out that mental hospital findings were quite inconsistent. Based on small and carefully selected samples.
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Schmalleger 2006
states that biological studies often fail to include proper testing groups resulting in flawed forms of analysis
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Walters and White
he shortcomings of biological crime theories. They assert that the degree of criminality is improperly established, often based on one arrest, sample groups are not varied or realistically selected, results are open for interpretation thus detracting
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ethics theorists
deli 2012, Sarabin and Miller
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Delsi 2012
drew attention to the racist aspect of lombroso's work. Many characteristics that lombroso identifies as criminal and activistic such as curly hair and dark skin are more likely to be found amongst people of African descent
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Sarabin and Miller-
it was immoral or scientifically unethical even to consider investigating the possibility that a biological internal characteristic might increase the likelihood of an individual committing a crime
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Medrick et al 1984-
criminal adoptive+criminal biological=24.5%, criminal adoptive+non criminal biological=14.7, non criminal adoptive+criminal biological=20%, non criminal both=13.5%
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Donta page
As a baby was frequently shaken, abused. Raine stated that ‘early physical abuse, amongst other things could have led to the brain damage, which could have led to him committing the violent act’. Distinct lack of activation in the ventral prefrontal
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MAOA gene
enzyme that breaks down important neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine and serotonin, low levels of serotonin have been associated with impulsive and aggressive behaviour
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Phineas Gage
acquired antisocial personality disorder associated with unilateral left orbital frontal lobe damage
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Dungan 2009-
diminished levels of activity in key areas for behaviour regulation and impulse control (****** and murderer)
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Batrinos 2012
here is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behaviour, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes
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BBC News Article 2002
study found that improving diets of young offenders at a maximum security institution cut offences by 25%
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Rafter 2008-
criminals are sick and criminality is similar to a disease.
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claimed to have identified a relationship between behaviour and facial structure.

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supporting evidence theorists


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