bioligy

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perstalis
wall of stomach has two muscles cirucllar and longatudal- as food passes down the circ muscles contract behind food and long relax. lOng contract around and helps it move along
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Stomach
secretes pepsin, enzymes breaks down protien into polypeptides, also secretes hydrcholic acid
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small intestine
Secretes enzyme and chemical digestion
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erythrcytes
red blood cells- transport of co2 and o2
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leucocytes
white- defence against pathegons
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Plasma
transports nutrientseg co2 and urea
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arteries
convey blood pumped out at high pressure by ventrciles
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Capillaries
carry blood through tissue and have permable walls
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Veins
collect blood at low pressure
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control of heart rate
sinotrail node acts as a pacemaker initiating each contraction, sends out electical impluse, which stimulates contraction
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barriers of infection
skin- contains sabeous glands making surface acidic so they cant survive ---mucus lines the nose, tracea, ****** contains enzymes to kill bactiria
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blood clotting
prothombrin-thrombin-fibringon-fibrin
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immune response
1.detects bactiria 2.becomes attached to receptor on membrane 3.bactiria is engulfed 4.discharge enzyme 5.bactiria broken down 6.rubbish leucytes distributed
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Antibiotic resistance
Some bactiria has natural resistance, they surive and then pass it on to other bactiria which makes it hard to treat diseases especially MRSA has resistance
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Solution to resistance
only antibiotics for serious illness, compete course, good hygine levels
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ventilation
pumping mechanism which moves air out of lungs maintaining concentration gradient
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gas exchange
exachange of gases between organism and surrondings
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cell respirattion
controlled release of enzyme in form of atp
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alviols
have larg surface area, thin walls and dense capillares
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resting potential
difference across a nerve cell when nott stimulated
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depolorization
ions channels detect a change in membrane potential when reaches 50mv sodium channels open and becomes positive
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repolorixation
potential =0mv pottasium channels open and rush out makes it -
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diabetes
control of glucose doesnt work
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is blood glucose is high
its taken out of blood and stored as glycagon, detected by islets, glucose B cells stimulate and produce insulikn
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if blood glucose is low
A cells stimualtedand secrete gylcagon which activates enzyme converting it from glycagon to glucose
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FSH
stimulates the production of follicles and secretion of oestrogen
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LH
stimulates completion of meiosis
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oestrogen
repair and thnickening of endomettrium
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progesterone
maintains endometrum
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follicular phase
FSH stimulates growth of follicles
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ovulation
LH increase causing the egg to be released, ruptures the follicle creating a corpus luteum
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luteal phase
corpus l secretes progesterone and oestrogen which inhibits LH and FSH corpus l degenertaes progesterone levels drop
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throxin
from thyroid gland, targets all cells deficency= lack of energy weight gain
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leptin
secreted by fatt cells
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melatonin
secreted by pineal glands , controls circulation
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Card 2

Front

Stomach

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secretes pepsin, enzymes breaks down protien into polypeptides, also secretes hydrcholic acid

Card 3

Front

small intestine

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

erythrcytes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

leucocytes

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Preview of the front of card 5
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