BIOL1- AQA A-Level Biology Unit 1

What is cardiac output?
Heart rate x stroke volume
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Name the layer of non-conductive tissue that prevents the wave of electrical activity crossing to the ventricles?
Atrioventricular septum
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What is the correct order of the cardiac cycle?
Atrial diastole, Atrial systole, Ventricular systole, Ventricular diastole
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What is atheroma?
Fatty deposit that forms within the artery wall
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How does thrombosis occur?
An atheroma breaks through the endothelium of a blood vessel, forming a rough surface that interrupts blood flow and results in the formation of a clot
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Why does the Nicotine in cigarettes increase the risk of CHD?
It makes the red blood cells more sticky (leading to higher risk of thrombosis) and stimulates production of adrenaline, increasing heart rate/blood pressure
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How many molecules are in a triglyceride?
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What are the roles of lipids?
Protection, Insulation, Waterproofing, Energy source, Plasma Membrane flexibility
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What 3 bonds are in the tertiary structure of a protein?
Hydrogen, Ionic and Disulfide
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What type of reaction is involved in the formation of dipeptides?
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In the biuret test, what colour does the solution turn if a protein is present?
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How is the oesophagus adapted for transport?
Thick muscular wall
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What does amylase break down and what is it broken down into?
Starch into maltose
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When does infection result?
When a pathogen gets into the host and colonises its tissues
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Where are the micro-villi located?
The epithelial cells lining the villi
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What is the correct description of co-transport?
Sodium ions actively transported out of epithelial cells by Sodium-Potassium pump into blood, Sodium ions diffuse into epithelial cells down concentration gradient, Sodium ions flood back in and couple with glucose, Glucose passes into blood plasma
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How are the villi adapted for diffusion?
Thin walls, large surface area, well supplied with blood vessels, able to move
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What is the only limitation of the TEM that doesn't also apply to the SEM?
The specimen needing to be thin
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What must a solution be in order to be fractionated?
Isotonic, cold and buffered
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How is magnification calculated?
size of image/size of object
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Which 3 structures found in prokaryotic cells are not found in eukaryotic cells?
Plasmid, Capsule, Circular DNA
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How does cholera cause diarrhoea?
Chloride ions are secreted into the lumen of the intestine, lowering the water potential. The water potential in the epithelial cells is raised, so there's osmotic loss.
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What are extrinsic proteins?
Proteins that occur either on the surface of the bilayer or are only partially embedded. They give mechanical support and work as cell receptors.
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What are the functions of phospholipids?
Making the CSM flexible, preventing water-soluble substances entering/leaving cell and allowing lipid-soluble substances entering/leaving cell
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Other than replacing lost ions, why must potassium ions be in an ORS?
To stimulate appetite
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Why is water on its own ineffective as an ORS?
It doesn't replace ions lost and water isn't being absorbed from the intestine
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Where are the enzymes involved in respiration found?
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What do smooth endoplasmic reticulums lack?
Ribosomes on their surface
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What monosaccharides is Lactose made up of?
Glucose and Galactose
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In the Benedict's test, what colour(s) does a solution turn if a reducing sugar is present?
Green, yellow, orange
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Why do non-competitive inhibitors stop an enzyme from functioning?
They alter the enzyme's shape
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With what do you test for the presence of Starch?
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Where do competitive inhibitors bind to?
The active site
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What is the gas exchange surface in the lungs?
Alveolar membrane
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What's the trachea supported by?
Rings of cartilage
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Why are the lungs located inside the body?
Air isn't dense enough and they'd lose too much water outside the body
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What are the tracheal walls made of?
Muscle lined with ciliated epithelium and goblet cells
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Why does fibrosis cause problems?
It thickens the epithelium of the lungs
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In a patient with asthma, why does the difficulty of ventilating the lungs cause a problem?
The diffusion gradient can't be maintained
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How is pulmonary tuberculosis transmitted?
Through the air by droplets
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When the diaphragm contracts and flattens in inhalation, what does this lead to?
An increase in the volume of the thorax
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When is air forced into the lungs?
When atmospheric pressure is greater than pulmonary pressure
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What is the MAIN cause of air being forced out during normal breathing?
The recoil of the elastic lungs
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Who does post-primary TB usually occur in?
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Blood is an internal medium. The movement of it maintains what?
Diffusion gradient
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Gases move from...?
A region where their pressure is higher to a region where their pressure is lower
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Pulmonary ventilation is what?
Tidal volume x breathing rate
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Why are monoclonal antibodies named so?
They come from cells from a single B cell
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What does the secondary immune response (B cells) involve?
Memory cells
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Why do phagocytes move towards the pathogen in phagocytosis?
Chemical products of the pathogen act as attractants
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What is a phagosome?
A vesicle that consists of a pathogen engulfed by a phagocyte
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What is an antigen?
A molecule that triggers the production of an antibody
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What's an example of a pathogen that has antigenic variability?
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What do antibodies consist of?
2 heavy polypeptide chains and 2 short polypeptide chains
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Name the layer of non-conductive tissue that prevents the wave of electrical activity crossing to the ventricles?


Atrioventricular septum

Card 3


What is the correct order of the cardiac cycle?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is atheroma?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How does thrombosis occur?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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