BIOL124 - Lecture 4 - Mammalian Endocrine System

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  • Created on: 22-02-16 17:25
What hormones are released by the Posterior Pituitary gland?
Oxytocin, ADH
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What hormones are released by the Anterior Pituitary gland?
GH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH
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What hormones are released by the Thyroid gland?
T3, T4 and Calcitonin
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What hormones are released by the Parathyroid glands?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
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What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
1.) Secretion of regulatory hormones to control activity of anterior pituitary. 2.) Control of sympathetic output to adrenal medullae. 3.) Production of ADH and oxytocin.
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What are the important areas in the pituitary gland, in terms of anatomy?
Adenohypophysis and Neurohypophysis.
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What is the name of the funnel that connects the Pituitary gland and the hypothalamus?
Infundibulum
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What is the hypophyseal portal system?
It is the communication from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland. Regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus are transported to anterior pituitary via this system.
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How is regulation by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland achieved?
Releasing hormone (RH) causses Hormone 1 release from anterior pituitary. Hormone 1 causes hormone 2 release from target endocrine organ. Hormone 2 inhibits release of RH and hormone 1. Hormone 2 has effect upon target cells.`
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Which hormones are released from the anterior pituitary?
Thyroid stimulating hormone, ACTH, Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone (LH), Prolactin (PRL), Growth hormone (GH), Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
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Is the growth hormone tropic or non-tropic?
It is both tropic and non-tropic.
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What does MSH do in amphibians, fish and reptiles?
It regulates pigment containing cells, in amphibians, fish and reptiles.
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What does MSH do in mammals?
In mammals, it acts on neurons in the brain, inhibiting hunger.
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What does Thyroid stimulating hormone do?
It controls the release of TSH.
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What is TSH?
It is a glycoprotein which stimulates the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid.
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What do the hormones T3 and T4 do?
They inhibit the release of TRH and TSH. This is negative feedback.
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What is Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)?
CRH causes ACTH release from anterior pituitary. ACTH is a peptide. ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have negative feedback effect on CRH and ACTH.
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What is the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinising Hormone (LH) (Gonadotropins)
Gonadotropin releasing hormone controls the production of FSH and LH production.
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What are FSH and LH?
They are glycoproteins which promote egg and sperm production and secretion of sex steroids.
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What inhibits FSH production?
Inhibin
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Does Inhibin inhibit GnRh release?
Possibly, it is not known.
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What is prolactin release stimulated by?
It is stimulated by prolactin releasing factor (PRF)
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What is prolacin release inhibited by?
It is inhibited by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH, dopamine)
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What is prolactin?
It is a peptide
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What is the purpose of Prolactin?
It stimulates milk production and may have a role in sperm production.
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What is GH?
It is growth hormone, also called somatotropin.
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What is GH released stimulated by?
Growth hormone releasing hormone
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What is GH release inhibited by?
It is inhibited by growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH)
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What is GH?
It is a peptide that stimulates somatostatin production.
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What is somatomedin?
It is an insulin like growth factor.
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What does GH do?
It stimulates fat and glycogen breakdown.
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What are some growth hormone abnormalities?
Gigantism, Acromegaly and Pituitary growth failure.
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What is gigantism?
It is excess GH before puberty
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What is acromegaly?
Excess GH after puberty
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What causes pituitary growth failure?
A lack of GH
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What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH and Oxytocin
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What does ADH target?
It targets the Kidney tubules
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What does Oxytocin target?
It targets the mammary glands, and uterine muscles.
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What is ADH?
It is Anti-diuretic hormone
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What stimulates ADH production?
Blood osmolarity increases above set point (e.g., due to dehydration or eating salty food.
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What does ADH to change blood osmolarity?
It increases premeability. H2O reabsorption helps prevent further dehydration.
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What is Oxytocin?
It is a peptide which stimulates smooth muscle production. It promotes childbirth and the release of milk. It may have a role in sexual intercourse.
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What happens in the the hypophyseal portal system?
Two capillary beds are joined together by a portal vein.
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What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Secretion of regulatory hormones to control activity of anterior pitituary, control of sympathetic output to adrenal meduallae, Production of ADH and oxytocin.
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When it the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland?
It is the anterior pituitary
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What is the neurohypophysis?
It is the posterior pituitary
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What is the hypophyseal portal system?
It is communication from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland. Regulatory hormones from hypothalamus transported to anterior pituitary via hypophyseal portal system.
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How is regulation by the hypothalamus and pituitary achieved?
Releasing hormone causes Hormone 1 release from anterior pituitary. Hormone 1 causes Hormone 2 release from target endocrine organ. Hormone 2 inhibits release of RH and hormone 1. Hormone 2 effects target cells.
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Name some hormones released from the anterior pituitary:
Thyroid stimulating hormone, ACTH, FSH, Luteinising hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, MSH.
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What does MSH do in the pituitary gland?
It regulates pigment containing cells in amphibians, fish, reptiles. In mammals it acts on neurons in brain and inhibis hunger.
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What does TSH stand for?
Thyroid stimulating hormone - also called thyrotropin.
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What controls the release of TSH?
TRH
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What is TSH?
It is a glycoprotein that stimulates the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid.
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Negative feedback occurs when T3 and T4 are released, how?
T3 and T4 inhibit the release of TRH and TSH.
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What is ACTH?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone - also called corticotropin
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What causes the release of ACTH?
CRH
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Where is ACTH released from?
The anterior pituitary gland
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What is ACTH?
It is a peptide that stimulate adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
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Do glucocorticoids have positive or negative feedback on CRH and ACTH?
Negative feedback
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What is FSH?
It is follicle stimulating hormone
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What is LH?
It is Luteinising Hormone
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What hormone controls FSH and LH production?
Gonadotropin (GnRH)
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What are FSH and LH?
Glycoproteins which promote egg and sperm production and the secretion of sex steroids.
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What inhibits FSH production?
Inhibin
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What inhibits GnRH?
Inhibin
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What hormones are released by the Anterior Pituitary gland?

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GH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH

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What hormones are released by the Thyroid gland?

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What hormones are released by the Parathyroid glands?

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What are the functions of the hypothalamus?

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