BIOL124 - Lecture 11 - Second Trimester to Birth

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  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 12-03-16 15:11
How much does the foetus weigh in the second trimester?
640g
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What are the features of the foetus at 24 weeks?
The alveoli form and the nostrils open
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What is the danger associated with having a baby born at 24 weeks?
Respiratory stress syndrome
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When do the amnion and chorion fuse?
During the second trimester
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How much does the baby weigh after 40 weeks?
3.2kg
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What are the features of the foetus at this age?
The testes descend
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What happens to the position of the fundus over pregnancy?
The fundus is pushed higher and higher throughout pregnancy.
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Which hormones are synthesised by the syncytial trophoblast?
HCG, progesterone, oestrogens, placental prolactin, placental lactogen, relaxin.
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What are the maternal physiological changes that occur during pregnancy?
Increased respiratory rate, increased tidal volume, 50% increased blood volume (increased aldosterone), 10-30% increase in nutrient requirement, increased urine production - elimintion of foetal waste.
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What are the changes that occur to the mammary glands during pregnancy?
Hormones convert the mammary glands from an inactive to a secretory state. By 6 months, secretions are produced which are stored in the ducts.
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Which hormone inhibits labour contractions?
Progesterone
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The effects of progesterone are overcome by...
Rising oestrogen levels (from mother's ovaries and placenta), rising oxytocin levels (from maternal and foetal pituitary), prostaglandin production (from myometrium).
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What does Oestrogen do to aid in labour?
It increases sensitivity of uterine smooth muscle (myometium) and increases release of oxytocin
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What does rising oxytocin do?
It directly stimulates smooth muscle contraction
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Together, oestrogens and oxytocin stimulate production of what...
Prostaglandins - these further stimulate smooth muscle contraction.
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When labour begins, what type of loop is initiated?
A positive feedback loop - this ensures that contractions will continue and become stronger and more frequent, until the baby is delivered.
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What are the 3 stages of labour?
Dilation, Expulsion and placental
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What is the difference between the lungs of foetus and neonate?
The foetus lungs are fluid filled and collapsed, they recieve only a little blood from the heart. Neonate lungs are inflated and need to receive blood from the heart.
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What is the difference in blood circulation between foetus and neonates?
In foetus, blood diverted directly from right atrium to left via foramen ovale. In Neonote, ductus arteriosus constricts and degenerates.
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What are the symptoms of Pre-eclampsia?
High blood pressure (hypertension), protein in urine (proteinuria), odema
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What are the maternal consequences of pre-eclampsia?
Eclampsia (fits), HELLP yndrom (elevated plasma liver enzymes), Cerebral haemorhages, Cortical blindness, acute renal cortical and tubular necrosis, pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress. - It can cause death.
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What are the foetal consequences of pre-eclampsia?
Placental dysfuntion which may result in growth retardation, asphyxia, premature labour or intrauterine death.
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What is gestational diabetes?
Increased maternal insulin resistance, Low maternal insulin levels, and increased blood glucose.
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What is Rhesus disease?
It is a condition where antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood destroy her baby's blood cells.
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Why is Rhesus disease dangerous?
It may lead to anaemia, and posibly, intrauerine death.
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How is Rhesus disease prevented?
By injecting at risk mothers (Rh-) with anti Rhesus antibodies at 28 weeks.
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Card 2

Front

What are the features of the foetus at 24 weeks?

Back

The alveoli form and the nostrils open

Card 3

Front

What is the danger associated with having a baby born at 24 weeks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When do the amnion and chorion fuse?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much does the baby weigh after 40 weeks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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