Biol 4 - Genetics

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Alleles
Different forms of the same gene
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Allele Frequency
The number of times an allele occurs within the gene pool
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Co-Dominant Alleles
Two alleles that have equal dominance - if two different co-dominant alleles are present both will be expressed and the resulting phenotype will be different to the two original phenotypes
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Directional Selection
Selection that operates towards one extreme in a range of variation
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Dominant Allele
An allele that will always be expressed in the phenotype, even if there is only one copy of it
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Genes
Short strands of DNA; each gene carries the code for a single protein
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Gene Pool
Total number of alleles in a particular population at a specific time
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Genotype
The genetic composition of an individual
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Heterozygous
When an individual carries two different alleles for a specific gene
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Homozygous
When an individual carries two alleles that are the same for a specific gene
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Multiple Alleles
Term used to describe a gene that has more than two possible alleles
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Phenotype
The characteristics of an organism, often visible, resulting from both its genotype and the effects of the environment
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Population
A group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same habitat at the same time
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Recessive Allele
An allele that is only expressed in the phenotype when there are two copies of it
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Selection
Process that results in the best-adapted individuals in a population surviving to breed and so pass on their beneficial alleles
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Selection Pressure
The environmental force altering the frequency of alleles in a population
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Speciation
The evolution of two or more species from existing species
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Stabilising Selection
Selection that tends to eliminate the extremes of the phenotype range within a population. It arises when environmental conditions are constant
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DNA
Genetic information that codes for characteristics; found in the nucleolus of the nucleus
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Chromosomes
Strands of DNA carrying multiple genes
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Loci/Locus
The specific position of a gene on a chromosome
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of times an allele occurs within the gene pool

Back

Allele Frequency

Card 3

Front

Two alleles that have equal dominance - if two different co-dominant alleles are present both will be expressed and the resulting phenotype will be different to the two original phenotypes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Selection that operates towards one extreme in a range of variation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An allele that will always be expressed in the phenotype, even if there is only one copy of it

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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