Bioenergetics

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  • Created by: leo1223
  • Created on: 12-05-18 17:59
What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Water + Carbon dioxide --> Glucose + Oxygen
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Why is energy required for photosynthesis?
Energy is required as the reaction is endothermic
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How is light energy absorbed in a plant?
A green chemical called chlorophyll found in the chloroplasts traps the light energy given off by the sun
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What is meant by a limiting factor?
The factor that stops the reaction from going any faster is know as the limiting factor
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How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
An increase in temperature results in an increased rate of photosynthesis as more energy is provided for the reaction, however when temperature approaches 45 the rate of photosynthesis drops as the enzymes in the reaction have become denatured
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How does carbon dioxide concentration affect the rate of photosynthesis?
As the carbon dioxide concentration increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, however after a certain point an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide has no further affect which means it can no longer be a limiting factor
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How does light intensity affect the rate of photosynthesis?
As light intensity increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis , this is because more energy is provided, however after reaching a certain point, any increase in light has no further affect which means it can no longer be a limiting factor
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How does chlorophyll concentration affect the rate of photosynthesis?
If chlorophyll concentration increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis as there is more available light energy for photosynthesis
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What else is glucose used for other than respiration in plants?
Making insoluble starch that is stored in the stem, leaves or roots, producing fat or oil which is stored in seeds of the plant, cellulose which is used to strengthen cell walls and proteins, which are used for growth and for enzymes
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How do plants produce proteins from glucose?
To produce proteins from glucose, plants also use nitrate ions, which are absorbed from the soil
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What type of reaction is respiration?
Exothermic
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What is meant by aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration is the main type of respiration which requires oxygen in order to respire
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What is meant by anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration is triggered when the body has insufficient oxygen to complete aerobic respiration therefore anaerobic respiration takes place as it does not require oxygen
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen --> Water + Carbon dioxide
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> Lactic acid
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?
Glucose --> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
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Explain why much less energy is transferred to the body in anaerobic respiration?
In anaerobic respiration, the glucose is not completely broken down, this means that the reaction transfers much less energy than aerobic respiration
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What is anaerobic respiration in yeast cells know as?
Fermentation
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What happens to the rate of respiration during exercise?
During exercise, the body demands more energy, so the rate of respiration increases
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What happens to the heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume during exercise and why?
The heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume all increase to supply the muscles with more oxygen and glucose which meets the demand for an increased rate of aerobic respiration
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Explain what happens when not enough oxygen is supplied to the muscles during periods of vigorous activity?
Anaerobic respiration will take place, which causes build up of lactic acid and creates oxygen debt, the lactic acid causes the muscles to hurt and stops them contracting efficiently, once exercise is is finished oxygen debt must be repaid
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What is meant by oxygen debt?
Oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen the body needs after exercise to react with the lactic acid and remove it from the cells
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What happens to the lactic acid after exercise?
After exercise, blood flowing through muscles transports the lactic acid to the liver where it is broken down
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What is meant by lactic acid?
Lactic acid is the product of anaerobic respiration, it is also a poisonous substance
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What is meant by metabolism?
Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell or in the body
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How is glucose used to form proteins?
Glucose is used along with nitrate ions to form amino acids, which are used to synthesise proteins
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How is glycerol used to from lipid molecules?
A molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids create a formation of lipid molecules
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What happens to excess proteins in the body?
Excess proteins are broken down into urea for excretion
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Card 2

Front

Why is energy required for photosynthesis?

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Energy is required as the reaction is endothermic

Card 3

Front

How is light energy absorbed in a plant?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is meant by a limiting factor?

Back

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Card 5

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How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?

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