Biodiversity, Evolution and Classification

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What is biodiversity?
the measure of the number of species on the planet
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why is biodiversity important?
potential source of food, useful chemicals, disease-resistant genes.
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What are the factors that affect biodiversity?
Anthropogenic factors (mining, agriculture, deforestation, urban development, over fishing, environmental pollution), Climatic, biotic (disease, competition, predation) and Geological (natural disasters)
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What could be the possible result of low biodiversity?
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Which areas on the planet have the highest biodiversity?
Tropical rain forests and coral reefs
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What is evolution?
The process by which a new species is formed by pre-existing ones over very long periods of time
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What is the mechanism that drives evolution?
natural selection
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who proposed the evolution theory and where did he do his reasearch?
Charles Darwin and the Galapagos Islands (formed as a result of volcanic activity)
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What is adaptive radiation?
the emergence of a new species from a common ancestor introduced ino a new environment
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Example of adaptive radiation
Darwin's finches- common ancestor reached the islands. The finches are now different on each island in their size/shape of their beaks related to the different types of food on each island but all still derived from the same common ancestor.
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What evidence can we use to show common ancestory?
Genetics and fossils
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What is DNA hybridisation?
It involves the extraction and comparison of the DNA of two species. The sequence of bases is compared and the more alike, the closer the organisms are related in terms of evolution.
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What is another way of using DNA to show the degree of similarity?
Comparing the sequence of amino acids in the same protein in 2 species as the sequence of aminoacids is determined by DNA.
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What does homologous mean?
having a common origin but serve a different function
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What odes analogous mean?
having the same function but different origin
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What is a pentadactyl limb?
a limb with 5 digits.
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examples of pentadactyl limbs...
human arm, the wing of a bat, the flipper of a whale, the wing of a bird. the leg of a horse.
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Definition of convergent evolution
the tendency of unrelated organisms to acquire similar structures
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If organisms share similar traits such as the wings of a bird and insect, does that mean they are closely related?
No- these are called analogous features. They may look the same because they serve the same function of flying, however it does not mean they share the same origin.
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What is taxonomy?
the sorting of living organisms into groups of a manageable size.
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What are the different taxons in the hierarchical system?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.
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What is phylogeny?
the evolutionary relationship between organisms
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How can the evolutionary relationships between organisms be represented?
On a phylogentic tree - the closer the organisms are on the tree, the more closely related they are.
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What is the binomial system?
the system based on giving each organism two names (name of genus and species). Uses latin as the international language.
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What are the 5 kingdoms?
Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protoctista and Prokaryotae
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Features of the prokatyotae kingdom are...
unicellular, no golgi body, endoplasmic reticullum, nuclear membrane or mitochondria. They have a cell wall but not made of cellulose.
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Features of protoctista kingdom...
eukaryotic organisms, membrane-bound organelles, not plants animals or fungi. Algae, water moulds, slime moulds.
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Features of fungi kingdom...
eukaryotes, body consists of a network of threads called hyphae, cell wall made of chitin, feeding is heterotrophic (saprophytic or parasitic. Reproduction by spores that lack flagella.
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Features of plants
multicellular, carry out photosynthesis. Cellulose walls, vaculoles containing cell sape, chloroplasts with photosynthetic pigments.
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features of animalia
Multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotes, lack cell wall, show nervous co-ordination.
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State the the main types of phylum
Annelida, arthropoda, chordata
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Main features of chordata
well developed brain enclosed in a cranium and a vertebral column and backbone
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Classes of chordata
Reptile, amphibians, mammals, birds and fish
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features of reptile
dry skin with scales, terrestrial, eggs fertilized internally, lungs
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Features of amphibians
partly terrestrial and aquatic, soft moist skin, eggs fertilized externally in water, young = aquatic with gills
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features of mammals
skin with hair, lungs, young born alive and fed with milk
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features of birds
egg= hard shell, lungs, fore legs= wings, ability to fly, development of feathers
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features of fish
have scale, fins and gills, aquatic forms
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Features of annelida
A long thing segmented body (as rings with body divided internally), a hydrostatic skeleton, a thhin permeable skin, a closed circulatory system
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Features of arthropods
open circulatory system, well-developed brain, hard outer exoskeleton, a body divded into segments
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features of myriapods
many pairs of paired legs (millipedes)
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features of insects
3 pairs of legs
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features of arachnids
4 pairs of legs
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features of crustaceans
between 10-20 pairs of legs (crab)
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why is biodiversity important?


potential source of food, useful chemicals, disease-resistant genes.

Card 3


What are the factors that affect biodiversity?


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Card 4


What could be the possible result of low biodiversity?


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Card 5


Which areas on the planet have the highest biodiversity?


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