Biodiversity, Classification and Evolution

Heterotroph
Organisms that gain nutrients from complex organic molecules, Digested by enzymes then built up into complex molecules that organism requires.
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Natural Selection
The best adapted organism in a population to the environment can survive and reproduce, passing on favourable alleles. Over time, the proportion of the alleles in the gene pool changes and evolution has occurred.
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Selection Pressure
An external pressure that drives evolution in a particular direction.
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Taxonomy
The study of the principles behind classification.
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Transgenic
Organisms that have genetic materials from another organism, usually by genetic engineering.
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Species
A group of organisms whose members are similar to each other in shape, physiology, biochemistry and behaviour, and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Millennial Seed Bank
Seed bank aiming to collect 24 000 species worldwide. 75% have already been collected.
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Classification
The organisation of living organisms into groups according to their similarities.
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Clones
Genetically identical cells or individuals.
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Ex Situ
Conservation in areas other than the natural habitat.
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In Situ
Conservation in the natural habitat.
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Continuous
Variation between organisms where there is a range of intermediates. Characteristics determined by genes that interact. Expression of these genes also influenced by the environment. E.g. height, intelligence in humans.
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Discontinuous
Variation between organisms, within a species, where there are discrete categories and no intermediates. Determined by one gene. E.g. blood groups A, B, AB, or O in humans.
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Domain
The highest taxonomic rank of organisms in Woese's taxonomy. They are Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.
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Ecosystem
All the living organisms and non-living components in a specific areas and their interactions.
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Endotherm
An animal that produces heat within its cells from respiration, to maintain a constant body temperature.
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Environmental Impact Assessment
An assessment of the damage that may be caused to the (local) environment by a proposed development.
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Evolution
Gradual process by which the present diversity of living organisms arose from a simple primitive organism that was present around 4000 million years ago. New species have arisen by natural selection.
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Gene Pool
The sum total and variety of all the genes in a population or species at a given time.
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Habitat
The place where an organism or population lives. It includes the climatic, topographic and edaphic factors as well as the plants and animals that live there.
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Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food from simple inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide and water. They are the producers in the food chain.
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Biodiversity
The number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem or in a habitat.
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Genus
Taxonomic group used to classify species that are similar.
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Order
Taxonomic group used to classify families that are similar.
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Kingdom
Taxonomic group where living organisms are either in: Prokaryotae, Protocista, Fungi, Plantae or Animalia.
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Phylogeny
The evolutionary relationships between organisms.
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Phylum
Taxonomic group used to classify classes that are similar.
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Quadrat
A square frame used for sampling in field work.
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Variation
The differences between individuals.
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Transect
A line through a habitat used to help take samples and study the habitat.
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Sympatric
Speciation that occurs within one area - some factor other than geographical separation has prevented free interbreeding between members of the species.
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Speciation
The formation of a new species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The best adapted organism in a population to the environment can survive and reproduce, passing on favourable alleles. Over time, the proportion of the alleles in the gene pool changes and evolution has occurred.

Back

Natural Selection

Card 3

Front

An external pressure that drives evolution in a particular direction.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The study of the principles behind classification.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Organisms that have genetic materials from another organism, usually by genetic engineering.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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