Biodiversity and evolution

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What is taxonomy?
study of the principles behind classification. Studying the differences between species
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What is phylogeny?
study of evolutionary relationships between organisms. Study of how closely related species are.
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What is a prokaryote?
no nucleus, loop of naked DNA, no membrane-bound organelles, smaller ribosomes
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What is a protoctist?
eukaryotes, mostly single-celled, wide variety of forms, mostly-living
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What is fungi?
mycelium, hyphae, wall of chitin, many nuclei, eukaryotes
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What are the three domains?
classification study based on RNA. Divided prokaryotes into two groups; bacteria and archaea because they are different (bacteria have different cell membrane structure, different enzymes)
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What is continuous variation?
two extremes and range of intermediates, most individuals are close to the mean value e.g. height, length of leaves
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What is discontinuous variation?
Two or more distinct categories with no intermediate values e.g. sex, blood groups
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What is natural selection?
the selection by the environment of particular individuals that show certain variations. These individuals will survive to reproduce and pass on their variations to the next generation
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What is speciation?
geographical separation (allopatric speciation) or reproductive barrier (sympatric speciation) dues to biochemical change preventing fertilisation. These prevent effective breeding between members of a species
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What is used as evidence for evolution?
fossils, biological molecules, protein variation, sequence od amino acids in cytochrome c, DNA
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How does evolution work?
variation must occur first, the environment can then select those variations that have an advantage, they will survive and reproduce, passing on advantageous characteristics, over generations
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What is conservation in situ?
minimising human impact by protecting them in their natural environment,
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What is conservation in ex situ?
conserving an endangered species by activities that take place outside of their natural environment
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What are seed banks?
collection of seed samples, stores a representative sample
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Why are seeds stored?
provide benefits to humanity, food and building materials, disease-resistant crops, habitat reclamation and repopulation, collected without causing disturbances, stored and germinated in protected surroundings,
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What are the disadvantages of storing seeds?
collection of wild seeds may cause disturbances, may not hold a representative selection of genetic diversity, collection of same seeds from different areas will be different,
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How are the seeds stored?
very dry freezing conditions, level of moisture monitored, tested regularly to check their viability (germinate them in a petri dish of nutrient agar, measure rate)
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What is CITES?
convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna - ensure that international trade does not threaten their survival
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What is the Convention of Biological Diversity?
promote sustainable development and recognises the biological diversity
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Card 2


What is phylogeny?


study of evolutionary relationships between organisms. Study of how closely related species are.

Card 3


What is a prokaryote?


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Card 4


What is a protoctist?


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Card 5


What is fungi?


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