Biodiversity and Evolution


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How can Biodiversity be considered at different levels: Habitat, Species & Genetic
Habitat - the range of habitats where different species live. Species - The differences between species e.g. bacteria that cause decay and this that help digest food. Genetic - Genetic Variation between individuals in same species
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Importance of sampling to study biodiversity of a habitat?
1.Human activities affect environment in many ways 2. Unless we study how our activities affect environment we can't asses our effect
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How do you measure species richness & evenness in a habitat?
Richness - use qualitative survey by recording all the different species you see. Evenness - use quadrats + transects to take samples then count no. plants of each species per unit area
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What does a high and low value of Simpson's Index of Diversity mean?
High Value - Indicates a diverse habitat and a small change to environment may affect one species. Low Value - A habitat dominated by a few species and a small change in environment could destroy whole habitat
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Explain the Binomial System
1. Binomial means two names 2. Each name includes the genus & species name e.g. "Homo sapiens" is humans 3. Linnaeus used Latin names so it was universal and everyone used the same names as many countries have different common names
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Differences in variation within species & between species
Within Species - differences between members of a population e.g. eye colour, skin colour. Between Species - Used to separate members of one species from another e.g. wings & hands
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Differences between Behavioural, Physiological & Anatomical adaptations
Behavioural-helps organism survive conditions it lives in e.g. plants close stomata when little water available. Physiological-ensures correct functioning of cell processes e.g. how plant folds its leaves. Anatomical-structural e.g Flagella in Bact.
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Evidence supporting theory of evolution
1. Fossils-evolut. of horse over 55 mil years 2. DNA-Comparisons of human DNA with others e.g. 1.2% of our coding sequence different from chimpanzees 3. Mole. Evidence-certain mols. found in world + if 1 species gives rise to another both same mols
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Why is the evolution of pesticide resistance & drug resistance a problem for humans
Pests that survive reproduce + pass on resistant characteristics this is as they can break down insecticide with enzymes or target receptor modified. People stop taking antibiotics when they feel better so bacteria can survive + reproduce
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Ethical & Aesthetic reasons for conserving species
All living organisms have a right to survive + loss of habitat prevents many organisms from living where they should. Natural systems are important for our physical + emotional health.
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What are the consequences of climate change on biodiversity of animals and plants?
National Parks mean that as climate changes, it doesn't have correct conditions or plants for those animals so they'll migrate outside where they're in danger
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Card 2

Front

Importance of sampling to study biodiversity of a habitat?

Back

1.Human activities affect environment in many ways 2. Unless we study how our activities affect environment we can't asses our effect

Card 3

Front

How do you measure species richness & evenness in a habitat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a high and low value of Simpson's Index of Diversity mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the Binomial System

Back

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