Biodiversity

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 14-01-14 14:37
Define species
A group with the same morphology and physiology and can breed together to produce fertile offspring
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Define habitat
A place where an organism lives- each species has its own requirements
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Define population
Is a group of organisms of the same species, living in the same place at the same time and able to interbreed with eachother
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Define community
All the living organisms of all the species, living in the same place at the same time
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Define biodiversity
The variety of habitats, communities and species in an area, and the genetic diversity within populations
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When is it best to use random sampling?
If an area looks uniform or if it looks like the distribution is patchy
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Why is it important to carry out random sampling?
As it isn't bias and then the data will be unrepresentative
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What is a way to randomly sample an area?
Set out axes and use a calculator to generate random coordinates for you to place the quadrat
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Why would you want to carry out systematic sampling?
If you wanted to see the change in vegetation etc. from one area to another
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How would you carry out systematic sampling?
Lay out a string running in a straight line and sample the organisms that are present along the line - called a transect
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What is a quadrat?
A square frame that marks off an area of ground/water within which you can make a thorough survey of what organsisms are present
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Define species richness
The number of different species there are in the area you are studying
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Define species frequency
A measure of the chance of a particular species being found within any one quadrat
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How would you measure species richness or species frequency?
Simply record the different species that are present in the quadrat
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Define species density
Measure of how many individuals there are per square metre
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How would you measure species density?
Count the number of individuals of that species in each quadrat. Total the results then divide by the total area of the quadrats
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Define percentage cover
The percentage of the ground covered by a particular species
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How would you measure percentage cover?
Divide your quadrat up into mini quadrats, you can then decide approximately what % of the area is covered
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How does using pin quadrats give a more accurate estimate of %age cover?
The higher the % cover the more likely a pin will touch a leaf as it is lowered. If one leaf is covering another the pin may touch both, so both are counted- less susceptible to error
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What would a Longworth trap capture?
Small mammals e.g. mice
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What would sweep netting capture?
Insects and invertebrates e.g. spiders
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What is the equation for the mark, release and recapture method for estimating pop. size?
No. in first sample x no. in second sample/no. of marked animals in second sample
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Define species evenness
Measure of the relative abundance of each species in the area we have sampled
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What is the main data trend of an area with high species evenness?
Less variation between pop. sizes of each species
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What is the Simpson's Index of Diversity equation?
D= 1- [ (n/N)2]
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What does an Index of 1 represent?
High biodiversity
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What does an index of 0 represent?
Low biodiversity
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When sampling what do we have to ensure?
No damage is done to the organisms or habitats
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Define genetic diversity
refers to thevariety of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species - helps them to adapt
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Define habitat diversity
Refers to the different ecosystems e.g. Tundra, deserts, woodlands etc
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define habitat

Back

A place where an organism lives- each species has its own requirements

Card 3

Front

Define population

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define community

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define biodiversity

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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