Biodiversity, classification, evolution definitions

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homologous
Having a common origin but serving a different function (pentadactyl limb)
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analogous
having the same function but a different origin (wings of insects/birds)
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Convergent evolution
unrelated organisms acquiring similar structures
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DNA hybridisation
the extraction and comparison of DNA. (more alike the sequences, the more closely related)
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Immunological comparisons
injecting antibodies into another species which will react with corresponding antigens, forming a precipitate. (more precipitate more closely related)
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Phylogeny
evolutionary relationship between organisms
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what is taxonomy based on?
evolutionary relationships
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biodiversity
a measure of the number of species on the planet
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evolution
the process by which new species are formed over a long period of time.
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Taxon
a classification group
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speciation
formation of a new species
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natural selection
the process by which evolution occurs. the best adapted organisms survive reproduce and pass on their advantageous genes.
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species
a group of closely related organisms with similar morphology behavior biochemistry and ecology that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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species biodiversity
the number of species and the number of individuals of each species in a given environment.
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species richness
number of species
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biodiversity hotspots
areas with a high no. of endemic species.
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morphology
similar structures may be analogous rather than homologous so biochemical and DNA analysis is needed to determine relatedness.
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species evenness
the relative abundance of a species compared with other
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genetic diversity
variety of alleles in a gene pool
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genetic bottleneck
catastrophic event reduces population size and gene pool
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hierarchy
a system of ranking in which small groups are nested in larger groups
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binomial system
the system of giving organisms a unique name.
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polymorphism
the occurrence of more than one phenotype in a population that cannot be accounted for by mutation alone.
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phenotype
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
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Genetic or DNA fingerprint/profile
a pattern unique for each individual related to the base sequences of their DNA
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Card 2

Front

having the same function but a different origin (wings of insects/birds)

Back

analogous

Card 3

Front

unrelated organisms acquiring similar structures

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the extraction and comparison of DNA. (more alike the sequences, the more closely related)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

injecting antibodies into another species which will react with corresponding antigens, forming a precipitate. (more precipitate more closely related)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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