Biodiversity and Endemism

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Biodiversity
The variety of living organisms in an area.
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Species Diversity
The number of different species and the abundance of each species in an area.
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Genetic Diversity
The variation of alleles within a species or population of a species.
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Endemism
When a species is unique to a single place (isn't naturally found in any other place in the world).
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Why is conservation important for endemic species?
They're particularly vulnerable to extinction - they're only found in one place so if their habitat is threatened they can't usually migrate, so their numbers will decline.
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Species Richness
The number of different species in an area - the higher the number of species, the greater the species richness (species richness doesn't give an indication of the abundance of each species).
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Quadrat
A frame places on the ground used for counting plants.
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Sweepnet
A net on a pole used for counting flying insects.
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Pitfall Trap
A small pit in the ground for trapping and counting insects.
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Net
Used for counting aquatic animals.
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Measuring Biodiversity
small area within habitat to sample, divide area into grid & use random number generator, repeat process with sample sampling technique
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Diversity within a Species
The variety shown by individuals of that species or within a population of that species.
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Why do individuals of the same species vary?
They have different alleles (different versions of the same gene).
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Gene Pool
The complete set of alleles on a species or population.
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If there is a greater variety of alleles, there is...
... greater genetic diversity.
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Phenotype
Describes the observable characteristics of an organism - different alleles code for slightly different versions of the same characteristic.
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How do you use phenotype to measure genetic diversity?
Look at different phenotypes in a population of a species to get an idea of the diversity of alleles in that population.
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How do you use genotype to measure genetic diversity?
Take samples of organisms' DNA and analyse the sequence of base pairs (the order of bases in different alleles is slightly different).
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Sequencing the DNA of individuals of the same species allows you to...
... look at the similarities and differences in the alleles within a species and measure the number of different alleles a species has for one characteristic to see how genetically diverse the species is.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of different species and the abundance of each species in an area.

Back

Species Diversity

Card 3

Front

The variation of alleles within a species or population of a species.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When a species is unique to a single place (isn't naturally found in any other place in the world).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

They're particularly vulnerable to extinction - they're only found in one place so if their habitat is threatened they can't usually migrate, so their numbers will decline.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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