Biodiversity

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  • Created by: AmyCadman
  • Created on: 07-05-16 11:39
What is habitat biodiversity?
the number of different habitats found within an area. The greater the habitat biodiversity the greater species diversity
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What is species biodiversity?
1. species richness-number of different species living in a particular area, 2. species eveness- a comparison of the numbers of individuals of each species living in a community.
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What is genetic biodiversity?
the variety of genes that make up a species. Many alleles exist leading to genetic biodiversity within a species. Allow for better adaptation to a changing enviroment
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What is sampling?
estimate the number of organisms in an area . Measure a particular characteristic of an organism
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What is random sampling?
selecting individuals by chance. Each individual has an equal likelihood of selection
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What is non random sampling?
sample not chosen at random. 1. opportunistic- weakest form, not representative of population, 2. stratified, 3. systematic different areas are sampled seperatley
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Evaluate reliability of sampling
sampling bias- selection process may be biased ( reduced by random sampling). 2.chance- organisms may not be representative of the whole population. effect can be minimised by small sample size
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How would you sample animals?
Pooter- small insects, Sweep nets-insects in long grass, Pitfall traps-crawling invertebrates, Tree beating- insects in bushes, Kick- organism in a river
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How would you sample a plant?
Use a quadrat. 1.point- frame containing a horizontal bar 2.frame quadrat-frame divided into a grid of equal sections
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How can you use a frame quadrat?
Density- count the number of plants in a 1m by 1m. Gives an absolute measure. Frequency- use small grids with quadrat, count the number of squares a species is present in. % cover- fast. Estimate by eye of the area within a quadrat
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How would you estimate animal population size?
capture mark release recapture (marking the organism so it is not counted twice)
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What is an abiotic factor?
the non-living conditions in a habitat. Have a direct effect on the living organisms that reside there e.g light and water available
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How would you calculate biodiversity?
Simpsons index. D=1- sum of (number of organisms in a species/number of organisms in a species)2. 0-no diveristy, 1-infinite diversity
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What is the importance of genetic biodiversity?
species that contain greater genetic biodiversity are likely to be able to adapt to changes in the environment and are less likely to become extinct because there is likely to be an advantageous allele allowing them to survive in altered conditions
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What factor affect biodiversity?
mutations in the DNA creating a new allele. Interbreedng between different populations (gene flow)
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When does genetic biodiversity decrease?
Selective breeding programmes (artificial selection) e.g pedigree animals. captive bredding programmes, rare breeds, artificial cloning, natural selection, genetic bottlenecks, the founder effect, genetic drift
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How can you measure genetic biodiversity?
measure polymorphism (genes that have more than one allele.= number of polymorphic gene loci/ number of total locr
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How does deforestation affect biodiversity?
It directly reduces thw number of trees. if only a specific type of tree is felled the species diversity is reduced. It reduces the number of animal species in an area and is destroys their habitat an food source.
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How does agriculture affect biodiversity?
deforestation.Removal of hedgerows reduces plant species and destroys animal habitats. Chemical and pesticides reduces species diversity. Monoculture- farmers only specialising in the production of one crop
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How will global warming affect biodiversity?
melting of polar ice caps- extincion of plant and animals living in those areas. Rising sea levels from melting icecaps and thermal expansion floods low lying land reducing habitats. High temps and less rainfall= plant extinction so loss of food
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Why should you maintain biodiversity?
Aesthetic- enriches lives, provides inspiration, stress relief. Economic-soil erosion as a result of deforestation=dependence of crops from other countries. Ecological reasons-keystone speces
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What is in situ conservation?
within the natural habitat. Maintains genetic diversity of species and evolutionary adaptations
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What is ex situ conservation?
out of the natural habitat e.g growing plants in botanical gardens, seed banks and captive breeding programs
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Why wouldn't some animals born in captivity not be suitable for release into the wild?
loss of resistance to diseases, genetic races- the original population and captive population cannot interbreed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is species biodiversity?

Back

1. species richness-number of different species living in a particular area, 2. species eveness- a comparison of the numbers of individuals of each species living in a community.

Card 3

Front

What is genetic biodiversity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is random sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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