Biochemicals and bonds

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 12-02-14 17:17
Define covalent bonds.
Formed when electrons are shared between atoms. They're very strong. Covalently bonded atoms form new molecules.
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When are atoms at their most stable?
When their outer energy levels contain a specific number of electrons, usually 8.
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Because carbon atoms have 4 electrons in their outer orbitals, how can they gain stability?
By sharing 4 electrons with other atoms.
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Why is a molecule very stable?
Because each atom is sharing the electrons to give them a stable, full outer energy level.
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What can molecule bonds be made between? (2)
Atoms of the same type or other types of atoms.
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In some cases, how many bonds can carbon form with another atom?
2.
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In carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, how are large molecules made?
By bonding together similar, smaller molecules.
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What does the term monomer refer to?
A single small molecule.
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What can many monomers be joined together to form?
A polymer.
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Although they are made of smaller molecules bonded together, why are lipids not polymers?
Because the smaller molecules are very different.
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What is the reaction that links biological monomers together called?
A condensation reaction.
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Why is the same reaction repeated many times to make a polymer?
In order to link many monomers together.
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What to do condensation reactions also link apart from biological monomers?
The different subunits in lipid molecules.
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In a condensation reaction what 3 things happen?
A water molecule is released, a new covalent bond is formed, and a larger molecule is formed.
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How is a larger molecule formed in a condensation reaction?
By the bonding together of smaller molecules.
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What is the reaction that splits larger molecules into monomers called?
A hydrolysis reaction.
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In a hydrolysis reaction what 3 things happen?
A water molecule is used, a covalent bond is broken, and smaller molecules are formed.
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Polymers can be large molecules that often have specific what?
Specific functions that rely on their shape.
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When does a hydrogen bond form?
When a slightly negatively charged part of a molecule comes close to slightly positively charged hydrogen in the same molecule.
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Where is hydrogen bonding most easily seen?
In water.
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What makes water a very special substance?
Hydrogen bonding.
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Are hydrogen bonds strong or weak bonds, and does this make them easily broken?
Weak bonds, and yes.
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What are hydrogen bonds sometimes described as?
'Interactions'.
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What do hydrogen bonds do in polymers?
Thousands can form and help stabilise the structure of the molecule.
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Are covalent bonds difficult to break, and what does breaking one produce?
Yes; it produces different molecules or atoms.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When are atoms at their most stable?

Back

When their outer energy levels contain a specific number of electrons, usually 8.

Card 3

Front

Because carbon atoms have 4 electrons in their outer orbitals, how can they gain stability?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is a molecule very stable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can molecule bonds be made between? (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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