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Microorganisms that cause disease.
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Infectious disease
A disease resulting from infection of a host organism by a pathogen.
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Is a measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard.
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Risk factor
Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease.
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When a change in one variable is reflected by a change in a second variable.
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A chemical, a form of radiation, or other agent that causes cancer.
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A disease, resulting from mutations, that leads to uncontrolled cell division and the eventual formation of a group of abnormal cells called a tumour, from which cells may break away and form secondary tumours elsewhere in the body.
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Degeneration of the cartilage of the joints, causing pain and stiffness of these joints.
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A disease in which the walls of the alveoli break down, reducing surface area for gaseous exchange, causing breathlessness.
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Chemical which reduces/prevents oxidation.
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A small, basic molecular unit
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A monomer of carbohydrates.
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Same molecular formula in a different arrangement.
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A molecule formed from 2 monosaccharides
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A large complex molecule composed of long chains of monomers.
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Reducing sugar
A sugar that serves as a reducing agent due to its free aldehyde or ketone functional groups.
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Condensation Reaction
Chemical process in which two molecules combine and water is removed.
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Glycosidic Bond
A bond formed in a condensation reaction between monosaccharides
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Chemical reaction that uses a water molecule when it breaks bonds between molecules
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Permanent changes due to bonds breaking in 3D tertiary structure.
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Amino Acids
Monomers of proteins
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Formed when 2 amino acids join
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Peptide Bonds
Chemical bond formed between 2 amino acids in a condensation reaction.
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Process by which amino acids join together to form a polypeptide
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Hydrogen bond
Chemical bond formed between the positive charge on a hydrogen atom and the negative charge on another atom of an adjacent molecule.
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Globular proteins that acts as catalysts
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Activation Energy
Minimum amount of energy needed to activate (start off) a chemical reaction.
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Active Site
A group of amino acids that makes up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits to catalyse a reaction.
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Size of image / Size of object
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Minimum distance 2 objects can be distinguished as 2 separate objects.
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Process of separating out particles/ cell organelles of different sizes and densities by spinning them a high speed in a centrifuge
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Eukaryotic Cell
A cell that has a membrane bound nucleus & other membrane bound organelles
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Prokaryotic Cell
A cell that lacks a membrane bound nucleus and & other membrane bound organelles
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Contains DNA of cell
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Site of aerobic respiration & produces ATP.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth - synthesis, stores and transports lipids & carbohydrates. Rough - provides large s.a for protein synthesis
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Golgi Apparatus
Processes & modifies proteins & lipids from ER
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Breaks down material to release enzymes to outside of cell/ Digest worn out cells.
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Carry out protein sysnthesis
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An individual lipid molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids.
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Saturated Fatty Acid
No double bonds between the carbon atoms.
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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
More than one carbon to carbon double bond.
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Triglycerides in which one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate molecule.
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Polar molecule
Unequal charged distribution.
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Extrinsic Proteins
Occur on surface of the bilayer
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Intrinsic Proteins
Completely span phospholipid bilayer.
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Net movement of particles/molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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Doesn't require an input of additional energy
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Dynamic Equilibrium
Particles evenly distributed
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Carrier Protein
A protein on the surface of a cell that helps to transport molecules and ions across plasma membranes.
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Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion involving carrier proteins to allow passive movement of substances across plasma membranes.
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Movement of water molecules from a solution of higher water potential to a solution of lower water potential through a partially permeable membrane
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Water Potential
Pressure created by water molecules. It is the measure of the extent to which a solution gives out water.
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No difference in water potentials between 2 solutions.
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Solutions with higher water potential compared with inside of a cell.
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Solutions with a lower water potential than the inside of a cell.
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Active Transport
Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient using energy from ATP.
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Tiny, finger-like projects from the cell-surface membrane of some animal cells.
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Contained within alveoli, fibrous protein that is the main constituent of connective tissues.
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Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Infectious disease caused by mycob-=acterium tb or bovis (bacterial infection)
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Pulmonary Fibrosis
Scarring on the epithelium of the lungs.
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Inflammation of the lungs/airways due to an allergic response to an allergen.
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Disease i which the walls of alveoli are broken down.
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Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output= heart rate x stroke volume
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Coronary Arteries
Arteries that supply blood to the cardiac muscle of the heart.
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Fatty deposits in the walls of the arteries, associated with high levels of cholesterol.
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Cardiac Cycle
A continuous series of events which make up a single heart beat.
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Lipid that is an important component of cell-surface membranes. Can lead to artheroma.
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Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
Any disease/ condition that affects coronary arteries that supply heart muscle.
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Myocardial Infarction
Interruption of the blood supply to the heart muscle e.g blood clot, causing damage to an area of the heart.
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Weakened artery wall points swell to form a balloon like structure
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Atheroma breaks through endothelium forming blood clot.
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Types of white blood cell responsible for immune response. Become activated in presence of antigens.
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Non specific response
Response is immediate and the same for all pathogens
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Specific response
Response is slower and specific to each pathogen
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Mechanism by which cells engulf particles to form a vesicle/ phagosome.
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A foreign protein on surface of a pathogen which stimulates an immune response.
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A type of lymphocyte associated with humoral immunity. Mature in Bone marrow
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T Cells
A type of lymphocyte associated with cell-mediated immuity. Mature in Thymus gland.
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A protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of an appropriate antigen.
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Herd Immunity
A form of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population provides a measure of protection for individuals who have not developed immunity
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Contains dead or inactive form of disease, and antigens into the body by injection or mouth in order to induce artificial immunity.
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Card 2


A disease resulting from infection of a host organism by a pathogen.


Infectious disease

Card 3


Is a measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


When a change in one variable is reflected by a change in a second variable.


Preview of the back of card 5
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