BIO2015: Lecture 7

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  • Created on: 12-05-14 15:05
when did scientists first discovered that DNA can transfer between organisms in 1946?
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who pioneered genetic transfer in bacterial systems?
Cohen and Boyer
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when was southern hybridisation pioneered?
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when was DNA sequencing pioneered?
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when was the first transgenic mouse done?
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when was the first genetically modified plants?
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when was the PCR reaction created?
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when was site-direct mutagenesis?
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what was approved for marketing in 1994?
Transgenic Flavr Savr tomato
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what was commercialised in 1995?
Bt corn, cotton potato; herbicide tolerant soybean
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when was the first transgenic animal declared safe to eat?
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what are the practical applications of genetic engineering?
industrially important proteins, change protein properties, modification of organism phenotype, diagnosis, agricultural and medical applications, chemical paper and detergent industries
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what are the advantages of pharmaceutical proteins? what are some examples?
Constant supply and safe. Examples: Growth hormone, insulin, Factor VIII and IX, antitrypsin
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which microbes produce valuable enzymes?
1) Hyperthermophiles 2) Anaerobes 3) Archaebacteria
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which biotechnology is not sustainable?
synthetic insecticides
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what is biotic stress?
stress caused by pest pathogens- major constraints on crop productivity
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what kind of biotic tolerances are there (or could there be)?
1) herbicide tolerance 2) insect resistance 3) virus resistance 4) pathogen (bacterial, fungi)
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what kind of abiotic tolerances are there?
1) metal tolerance 2) drought tolerance 3) Cold/frost tolerance
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what are some strategies (either commercialised and under development) being used in insect-resistant transgenic plants?
1) Novel insecticidal bacterial proteins (eg. Pht toxins from Photorhabdus luminescens) 2) (Bt) fusion proteins 3) Plant-derived insecticidal proteins 4) Over expression of endogenous defense genes
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19 cont.
5) Animal-derived insecticidal proteins/peptides 6) Antibodies to active proteins in target pests 7) Secondary metabolites (antisense or RNAi)
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in the first step of Bt toxin action, what activates the protoxin?
proteases in the insect gut- normally determines overall specificity between insect orders
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in the second step of Bt toxin action, where does the toxin bind?
to an integral membrane protein- typically aminopeptidase N- in cells of the gut epithelium
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in the 3rd step of Bt toxin action, what happens with insertion of domain I of Bt toxin into the membrane of gut epithelial cells?
formation of an open ion channel- leads to cell lysis and death
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what are the benefits of Bt technology?
1) Economic benefits to farmer 2) Environmental benefits through reduced pesticides 3) Health benefits through reduced mycotoxins (corn)
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who was Goldern rice invented by?
Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer- in 1999 produced prototype Golden Rice
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who did they form a public-private partnership with?
Syngeta- in 2005 developed new version with substantially more B-carotene in
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which 3 vitamins does transgenic multivitamin corn have elevated levels of?
1) B-caroptene 2) Ascorbate 3) Folate
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what are Omega-3s a part of?
essential fatty acids- critical for good health- body cannot make them on its own- needed in diet
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what are 2 key omega-3 fatty acids?
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), both found primarily in oily cold-water fish such as tuna and salmon. Aside from fresh seaweed, plant foods rarely contain EPA or DHA.
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how are high stearate oils made?
Created by modified soybean and canola plants, these functional oils offer more healthful properties for margarines and shortenings.
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what percentage do HSO's have of stearate compared to conventional oil?
30% stearate vs 2-4% in conventional oil
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what are other advantages of HSO?
1) No/little hydrogenation is required 2) No trans fatty acids 3) generally healthier oil
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what are some other examples of GM plants being used?
1) a genetically modified grass which should not trigger hay fever 2) scientists have designed a genetically modified decaffeinated coffee.
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what is an example of to using GM technology to increase yields of medicinal substances once they are identified in plants?
Madagascan periwinkle- produces anticancer drugs- utilised to treat Hodgkins Lymphoma. But naturally produced in minute quantities, therefore expensive to use in treatments.
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what are the 2 anti-cancer drugs that Madagascan Periwinkle produces?
1) vinblastine 2) vincristine
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how else could GM technologies be used for medicinal purposes?
The potential exists to administer drug treatments painlessly and effectively via inclusion in the diet. e.g. An anticancer antibody has been expressed in rice and wheat- recognises cells of lung, breast and colon cancers
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what are some examples of genetically modifying food to include a vaccine?
potatoes and bananas have been modified to express Hepatitis B vaccine
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how else could vaccines be delivered through GM technologies?
Specific antibodies could be produced in soybeans or corn- fed to livestock prior to slaughter May reduce or even eliminate outbreaks of foodborne diseases
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what are some examples of food borne diseases that could be eliminated by incorporation antibodies into livestock diets?
1) E coli 0157:H7 2) Salmonella
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what are biofuels?
liquid transportation fuels made from plant matter instead of petroleum.
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what are the advantages of biofuels?
1) reduces toxic emissions and greenhouse gas build-up 2) dependence on imported oil 3) trade deficits 4) supports agriculture and rural economies
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how could GM technologies be used on Jatropha curcas?
1) Establish elite lines 2) Control of harvesting date 3) Genetic breeding to develop Jatropha plant size suitable for harvesting 4) Reducing carcinogenic and toxic compounds 5) Genetic breeding to give high oil yield and high quality biodiesel
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biopolymers can be produced in GM plants allowing the manufacture of what?
bio-degradable plastics (e.g. PHBV, Biopol) these are a sustainable resource compared to fossil fuels.
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what are the advantages of bioremediation?
1) costs ten times less than conventional soil cleansing procedures 2) leaves the soil fertile 3) less adverse environmental effects.
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what are examples of some Genetically Engineered Animals in Agriculture?
1) Transgenic cows exist that produce more milk or milk with less lactose or cholesterol 2) Pigs and cattle that have more meat on them 3) Sheep that grow more wool
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what is AquAdvantage salmon?
The trade name for a genetically modified Atlantic salmon developed by AquaBounty Technologies
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which genes were added to the Atlantic's?
1) A growth hormone -regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon 2) promoter from an ocean pout
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what do these genes do?
enable it to grow year-round instead of only during spring and summer. The purpose of the modifications is to increase the speed at which the fish grows, without affecting its ultimate size or other qualities
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how long does it take this fish to grow to market size?
16 to 18 months rather than three years
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when was the first data set on the aquadvantage salmon submitted to the FDA?
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what is β-lactoglobulin (BLG)?
the whey protein believed to be the primary cause of milk allergy in humans
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how were scientists able to create Hypoallergenic Milk cows?
combined RNAi interference with nuclear transfer technologies to generate a transgenic cow that produces milk lacking β-lactoglobulin (BLG)
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who pioneered genetic transfer in bacterial systems?


Cohen and Boyer

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when was southern hybridisation pioneered?


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when was DNA sequencing pioneered?


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when was the first transgenic mouse done?


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