BIO2008: Lecture 4

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  • Created by: LMoney
  • Created on: 10-05-14 20:14
what is the number for fitness usually between?
0-1
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why is it RELATIVE fitness?
it is relative to the fittest phenotype
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at what level is fitness never measured?
never at the level of the allele
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what is the degree of dominance of an allele signified by?
h
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what is h when there is codominance?
h=1/2
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in what species do homozygotes have twice the fitness of heterozygotes?
Drosophila melanogaster
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in sickle cell anemia is the heterozygote fitter or less fit than the homozygote in areas with malaria?
heterozygote is more fit
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combining population genetic processes and looking at changes in allele frequencies: what is the weakest force?
mutation, strongest force would be hard to predict
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are most mutations disadvantageous or not?
Most mutations are disadvantageous (90%), many are neutral (10%) and few are advantageous (1%)
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what is outcrossing?
opposite of inbreeding- introducing new genetic material into the breeding line
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in outcrossing species, is there a large or small mutation load?
considerable mutation load (around 1 per haploid human genome)- explains effects of inbreeding, most recessive alleles are at low frequencies
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which processes are deterministic (theoretical- follow a law) and which are stochastic (actual- more realistic, with scatter) in population genetics?
Deterministic: selection, mutation, migration Stochastic: random genetic drift
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is selection more or less effective in small populations?
less effective
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are deleterious alleles more likely to be fixed in small or large populations?
small populations
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selection is weak relative to sampling, when what?
4 Ns
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selection is strong, and will dictate allele frequencies, when?
If 4 Ns >>1
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what is an example of the interconnection between migration and selection?
Blue ****. Evergreen Holm oak: lesser insect abundance Downy oaks: better reproduction because better synchronisation nest/food
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Card 2

Front

why is it RELATIVE fitness?

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it is relative to the fittest phenotype

Card 3

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at what level is fitness never measured?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the degree of dominance of an allele signified by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is h when there is codominance?

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